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日本经营之神松下幸之助的创业史

[:zh]松下幸之助被日本人称为“经营之神”。他所创立的松下电器,在实业界具有巨大影响。他通过对经营实践的总结和自己的感悟思考,提出了一整套经营哲学。他用自来水哲学比喻企业的使命,要求企业承担起消除贫困的责任;他提出的堤坝式经营,是避免企业周期性震荡,减少不确定性对企业冲击的指导思想;他提出的玻璃式经营,是管理活动公开化透明化的手段,以建立企业中的坦诚和信任。松下幸之助在人本理念上,结合日本实际有着创造性的发展。在松下那里,管理固然有科学,然而更多的是艺术。对企业的思考,使他最终发展到对人类前景的关注。不明究竟者往往只看到松下的社歌和团队,而松下的真正精神在于人性的发掘。能够获利的企业家如过江之鲫,而能够像松下幸之助那样思考的企业家则屈指可数。斗转星移,松下的具体做法可能会过时,但他的精神已经载入管理思想史册。

松下的经营理念

松下幸之助在长期的企业经营中,形成了自己独特的经营理念。概括起来,以“自来水哲学”、“堤坝式经营”和“玻璃式经营”最为重要。尤其是“自来水哲学”,被幸之助看作经营的根本理念,并以此作为他的自传书名。

自来水哲学

松下电气器具制作所创立于1918年3月7日,但是,幸之助却把公司的创业纪念日确定在1932年的5月5日。原因无他,就是因为这一天他提出了“自来水哲学”。

在幸之助看来,企业的形体远远没有企业的精神重要。尽管松下电器已经运行了十几年,但是,在“自来水哲学”诞生前,它不过是一个与其他企业一般无二的制造商而已。直到这一天,在幸之助脑海中长期盘旋、苦苦思索的问题终于有了答案,他明白了企业的使命。所以,这一天才是松下的创业开端。

所谓“自来水哲学”,是松下幸之助对企业使命的比喻。对于这一使命,最简单的表述就是消除世界贫困,使人类走向繁荣和富裕。幸之助自己说:“企业的使命究竟是什么?一连几天我思考这个问题直至深夜,终于有了答案。简单来说,就是消除世界贫困。比方说,水管里面的水固然有其价值,然而喝路边的自来水不用付费也不会受到责备,因为水资源相对丰富。企业的责任不正是让世界物资丰富以消除一切不方便吗?”“经营的最终目的不是利益,而只是将寄托在我们肩上的大众的希望通过数字表现出来,完成我们对社会的义务。企业的责任是:把大众需要的东西,变得像自来水一样便宜。”用幸之助的话来表达,经营就是从“无”当中制造“有”,通过生产活动给所有人类带来富足丰裕的生活。

从本质来看,“自来水哲学”,就是通过工业生产手段,把原来只能供少数人享受的奢侈品变成普通大众都能享受的普及品。企业经营者眼睛要盯住人们追求生活进步的欲望,而不是盯住顾客的钱袋。市场是靠价廉物美的产品创造出来的,而不是靠对经销商回扣打折算计出来的,更不是靠坑蒙拐骗欺哄顾客推销出来的。由此,奠定了松下经营的基本方针:质量必须优先,价格必须低廉,服务必须周到。正是这种经营方针,使松下得到顾客的信赖,渡过了一个又一个难关,逐步走上壮大之路。

“自来水哲学”的诞生,本身就是松下公司此前经营经验的积累和升华。早在1927年,松下首次成立电热部,计划生产电熨斗。当时全日本电熨斗每年销量不超过10万个,每个价格在4~5元。幸之助则认为:“这么方便的东西,但因为价钱贵,很多想用的人都买不起。因此,只要降低价钱,就会有许多人去买。如果很多人要买,乍看起来月产一万个似乎多,但实际上是能够卖出去的;先决条件是,降低价格,使大家都能买得起。”于是松下决定,以大量生产来降低价格,每月生产1万个,销售价格3.2元,结果大获成功。这一案例,几乎就是美国福特T型车的日本翻版。所以,美国的媒体报道把松下幸之助和亨利·福特相提并论。对此,幸之助自己总结说:“生产大众化的产品时,不但要推出更优良的品质,售价也要便宜至少三成以上。”

自来水哲学在幸之助的年代具有巨大的威力,它势必会把松下公司带到规模化经营的道路上。家用电器在日本乃至在全世界的迅速普及,松下公司功不可没。美国的穷人也能开汽车,归功于当年的福特;当今的乞丐也能看电视,则归功于当年的幸之助。

这种自来水哲学,使松下公司的经营特别注重顾客导向,关注大众需求。松下在产品开发上以模仿为主,走短平快路线。一旦发现某个有前景的新产品,松下就会拿过来,做出比别人甚至比原发明者质量更高、价格更低的“新产品”。“模仿中的创新”使松下取得了经营上的成功。它的产品,一般都具有批量大、成本低、质量高、服务好这四个特征,能够赢得较高的市场份额。但是,在真正的原创上就略逊一筹。引领产业先锋的原创型创新,会受到自来水哲学的局限。松下研制计算机的例子,就是一个很好的说明。在计算机刚刚兴起时,松下也致力于计算机研发。到1964年,松下已经在计算机工业上投入了十几个亿,包括松下在内的七个计算机公司出资2亿,成立了日本电子工业振兴会,共同进行计算机开发。但是,美国的大通曼哈顿银行副总裁在同幸之助聊天时说到,世界各国的计算机制造商都经营不善,美国也只有IBM一家在继续,连GE都力不从心,日本有七家厂商是不是太多了。幸之助果断决定,顶住舆论压力,放弃计算机。在幸之助眼里,果断舍弃成本过高的项目,是经营的明智之举。然而,这种舍弃有可能把未来的前景也一并放弃掉。进入21世纪后松下公司在经营上出现的种种问题,甚至一直不能摘掉“仿制大王”的帽子,与这种自来水哲学密切相关。

但是,要说自来水哲学已经过时,似乎还为时过早。尽管现在的松下公司已经有限度地改变了幸之助当年的经营策略,然而,自来水哲学中蕴含的服务思想、顾客至上观念、推动社会走向繁荣和富裕的愿望并不过时。继承松下创立的理念,改变松下过去的策略,这二者并不矛盾。我们要思考的,恰恰是理念和策略之间的关系。自来水哲学的深层价值,在于把企业使命最终定位于社会责任上。正是这一逻辑,使自来水哲学得到了包括德鲁克在内的许多学者赞扬。

堤坝式经营

“堤坝式经营”是“自来水哲学”在企业运作上的逻辑展开。1965年2月,幸之助在关西商界讨论会上提出了这一概念,做了题为《堤坝经营和适正经营》的演讲。他说:“关于行之有效的经营方法,我想在这里提倡‘堤坝经营’的方法。为什么要修堤坝呢?是为了不让河水不创造任何价值地白白流走。如果河流的水量剧增就会变成洪水,带来巨大灾害;而如果遇上干旱天气就会造成水量减少。因此,要在河流的适当位置修建堤坝,一来调整水流,二来利用水力发电。修建堤坝的目的就是珍惜老天赐予的每一滴水,并加以有效利用。这样既能够保证安全,又能够创造价值。经营公司的道理不是一样的吗?经营也需要堤坝。”“我说的堤坝经营,从一开始就应该具有后备设备,有多少是多少。这样的话,即使经济发生一些变化或者需求有变化,还能保证商品供应,不会导致涨价,因为这时只要运转后备设备即可。相反,如果商品过多,就可以让设备暂停运转。这个道理就和根据需要来调整堤坝里的蓄水量一样。资金、库存和人才也同样需要‘堤坝’。”“正确认识堤坝经营的意义,就能使经营变得更加稳健,获得高额利润。堤坝经营能够为社会带来真正的安定和繁荣。”

堤坝式经营的实质,是避免经营过程中的周期性震荡,减少不确定性对企业的冲击。企业家在经营中所建造的堤坝不止一种,市场如同河流,经营如同堤坝。堤坝的功能有多种多样,蓄水、防洪、供水、发电等等都少不了堤坝。对于企业来说,需要建立的堤坝主要有。

>设备堤坝。不能使设备百分之百投入运转,那种“满负荷”的设想,有可能会使企业运行的弓弦绷得太紧,环境稍有风吹草动,就会拉断弓弦。一般来说,一个企业只有在设备运行八九成的情况下依然有利可图,才能保持正常运转。产能维持一二成的剩余能力,是企业应变的基本条件。

>库存堤坝。产品库存要适量,这些库存有两个作用方向,对内作为生产线出问题时的缓冲,对外作为市场波动时的缓冲。就好像中国古代建立的“常平仓”,丰收则籴,歉收则粜,维持市场供应的大致平衡,使物价保持稳定。幸之助“堤坝式经营”的想法,本身就是来自于美国联合碳化物公司(UnionCarbideCorporation)的电池价格启发。它的电池30年前卖15美分,现在还是卖15美分。幸之助联想到,30年之间,原料、技术、市场肯定有着巨大变化,而这种产品能够30年保持价格不变,甚至不受通货膨胀率的影响,无疑是在经营机制中有着坚实的“堤坝”。

>资金堤坝。新的建设项目上马,同样需要有缓冲水坝。一个十亿元的项目,需要有十一二亿的资金准备才能动工,否则,就很有可能造成“烂尾”,不但建设者受窘,而且前期投资也很有可能打水漂。

>产品堤坝。在一个产品如日中天时,就要推出下一个新产品,这就要求在一个产品投入生产时甚至在投入生产前,后续新产品的研制就要着手展开。

>心理堤坝。经济有涨有落,任何一个企业,经营过程绝不可能一帆风顺。所以,从董事长总经理到基层员工,都要对环境变化有足够的心理准备,在心理上以不变应万变,在行动上以变制变,实现经营的自主性。

堤坝式经营的道理很简单,无非就是把经营中的刚性变为弹性,预留出适应环境变化的余地。但是,现实中的经营者却往往做不好这个。按照幸之助的说法,日本的企业一直靠贷款运行,没有走上堤坝式经营的道路。要建立各种堤坝,首先需要不再靠贷款经营。这一点,松下已经做到了。但是,建坝不易,护理堤坝更难。幸之助认为,护理堤坝实际上仍然是一个观念问题。首先要考虑如何运用堤坝,如果不能随机应变,即便建立了堤坝,也不会根据水量的变化进行适时调节。其次要明确堤坝的用途,堤坝是为消费者服务的,不是为企业自身服务的。偏离了顾客导向,堤坝的作用就会适得其反。另外还要密切注意各种信息,如果水源枯竭却毫不知情,或者溢水管涌却视而不见,堤坝就失去了意义。

玻璃式经营

“玻璃式经营”的要旨是公开和透明。这种公开和透明,建立在对员工信任的基础之上。所有的经营状况,都像玻璃一般清澈可见,不加掩饰。

玻璃式经营不是松下幸之助深思熟虑的产物,也不是学究式逻辑推理的结果,而是经营实践中的“不得已”。在幸之助的经营思想中,玻璃式经营是诞生最早的。当松下还是几个人的小作坊时,生产与销售混同一起,发明、研制与制造无法区分,甚至生产与生活也融合为一体。这种情况下,白手起家的幸之助,没有那种老板与雇工之间的界限,所有人可以说都是合伙人,所以,幸之助要随时把经营情况通报给其他人。由此,形成了幸之助的“玻璃式”习惯。他的开诚布公,力求信息对称,是他早期创业时赖以生存的基本方式。随着业务的扩大,人员的增加,尽管老板和雇工之间的界限开始明朗化,原来亲密无间的熟人关系也开始等级化,但公开透明的“玻璃状态”却没有退隐,一直被保持下来。

这种“玻璃状态”能够持续发展,并形成一种经营思想,同幸之助自身的经营体验密不可分。最初是天天算账,当经营略有扩大、开始规范化时,幸之助把它变成每个月都结算盈亏,向所有员工公布。在松下,这是习惯和常态,而同当时的其他企业相比,则是一种特立独行。幸之助很快发现,这种做法具有明显的经营优势,因为其他企业都不这样做,有的老板本人也糊里糊涂,一旦家大业大就不清楚整体的经营状况,不具备公开透明的基础。幸之助不一样,他对经营状况滚瓜烂熟,公开盈亏,同时总结各人的贡献情况轻而易举。这一举措,正面效应十分明显。相对于其他企业的员工,松下的员工都能清楚地看到自己的努力成果,同时也能感受到老板的诚恳和信任,由此而催生出员工的主人翁意识,提高员工的士气。

 

玻璃式经营法的实质是雇主与员工坦诚相待,互相信任。可贵的是,松下在快速增长后,这种做法一直被保持了下来。小型作坊采用玻璃式经营比较简单,而中型企业就已经有了难度,大型公司则更是难上加难。松下能够一直坚持玻璃式经营,在很大程度上,得益于松下的发展是一种自然的增长,是顺应市场需要的增长,没有揠苗助长人为扩大规模。有点像中国的民营企业大午公司的做法,增长的欲望和劲头,不是来自于上层的压力,而是来自于下层的自觉。幸之助自己也在实践中感受到,这种做法能够有效激励士气,能够保证上下一心,能够深切检讨经营得失并化解冲突,还能够培养出高度自主的中层经理和工作骨干。即便不采用别的措施,也能很好地防范阿吉里斯指出的那种“习惯性防卫”。

随着企业的扩展,幸之助把玻璃式经营规范化。如定期对员工公开企业的财务状况,定期向员工说明企业的规划目标,经营当局和工会组织保持有效地沟通和协商等等。对此,幸之助把它上升到经营理念。说:“企业的经营者应该采取民主作风,不可以让部下存在依赖上司的心理而盲目服从。个人都应以自主的精神,在负责的前提下独立地工作。所以,企业家更有义务让公司职员了解经营上的所有实况。总之,我相信一个现代的经营者必须做到宁可让每个人都知道,不可让任何人心存依赖的认识,才能在同事之间激起一股蓬勃的朝气,推动整个业务的发展。”

玻璃式经营会使领导者的关注重心向员工倾斜。企业大了,玻璃式经营的上下一心、协调一致就会发生困难。对此,幸之助用“精神灯塔”来指引员工的方向,增进企业的凝聚力。我们现在经常关注的企业文化,在松下公司的做法是同玻璃式经营紧密结合的。为了使员工真正融入企业,和公开透明的经营思想相配合,松下在扩张中形成了一整套对员工的“教育”方式。通过确定公司精神的信条(即松下七精神),唱《松下社歌》,奏《松下进行曲》等方式,使员工以近乎“洗脑”的虔诚真正融入公司。所以,松下从员工进厂开始,就郑重其事地进行入社教育,朗读、背诵《松下精神》,熟唱《松下社歌》,学习幸之助“语录”,参观公司创业史展览。正式工作后,每天早晨在工作前集体背诵松下精神和歌唱社歌,每个月要在所属群体进行一次关于公司精神和公司社会责任的公开演讲,每年组织一次隆重的送产品(由工厂送到经销商)仪式,每个松下人都要不断回答“我真正想做的是什么?”“我需要学习什么?”“我有什么缺点?”等问题。通过这些方式,使员工的自主性和凝聚力得以增强。有人曾经对这种做法产生疑问,幸之助回答道:“朝会、唱社歌、朗诵七大精神,是松下电器的传统,必须遵照执行,贯彻到底。事情一旦决定之后,必须坚持到底,不得自己迷失方向,或被他人言行迷惑,否则不会成功。做生意也是一样,必须贯彻志向。”

需要指出,在中国的开放过程中,松下的这种“企业文化”受到了不少中国经理的青睐,在一些企业中采取类似做法也收到了相应的效果。但且不可忘记,松下的成功之处,是外在仪式和内涵意义的有机结合。而这种内涵,是通过玻璃式经营实现的。如果失去了内涵,仅仅是唱社歌、诵信条,甚至经理思想人手一册去学习,只会形成表面化的作伪,无助于员工对公司的高度认同。更重要的是,松下这套方式的形成过程,是与幸之助的人格魅力紧密结合的。因此,松下公司虽然庞大,却一直拒斥官僚化,同时也在有意识地消弭等级化,甚至在某种意义上保留着家族企业的基本格局,以此来保持玻璃式经营的有效性。一旦没有幸之助的这种个人魅力,在一个高度官僚化或者等级化的组织里,试图建立这种企业文化,就有可能走上反面。即便是松下本身,在增进员工的自主性和增进员工对公司的认同感之间,也存在着潜在的某些问题。当松下幸之助去世后,这种问题就逐渐外显。松下公司能不能走出幸之助的光环,这是进入21世纪后的新课题。

松下幸之助的精神,在管理思想上无疑会影响长远,而松下幸之助本人,则属于20世纪。他的经营思想,尤其是自来水哲学蕴含的企业社会责任,堤坝式经营蕴含的应对不确定性策略,玻璃式经营蕴含的员工自治思想,在德鲁克那里,得到了理论上的阐释和学术上的论证。试图把松下的经营方法原封不动地移植到其他企业,延续到21世纪,则很有可能是邯郸学步,但由此而否定松下经营思想的未来价值,则肯定是买椟还珠。

松下的人本管理和企业使命

人本思想历史渊源悠久,讨论多种多样。在企业经营领域,有相当多的人主张人本管理,松下幸之助就是一个成功的典型。他的特点,是把以人为本与企业经营紧密结合为一体,把人性本质与社会责任紧密结合为一体。按照幸之助的说法,就是“企业即人,成也在人,败也在人”。通过回答“企业为何生存”这一问题,幸之助把具有浓厚日本特色的人本管理信念和方法发挥到了极致。

人的本质和企业经营

松下幸之助经营思想的一大特色就是阐述了人性的微妙,提出了顺应自然人性的企业经营观。他的整个经营思想都是建立在对人性的了解和对自然法则的掌握之上的。松下幸之助认为,企业是“人”的事业,任何经营和管理都不能离开人,因此经营理念和管理方法都必须要以人性为出发点。在人性问题上,幸之助没有从“经济人”假设到“社会人”假设的学术考究,也没有从“X理论”到“Y理论”再到“超Y理论”和“Z理论”的学理推演,而是以一名成功企业家的身份,提出了“人是万物之王”的人本观念,在人本理论的发展中独竖一帜。

幸之助认为,“人类是万物之王。它顺应了生成、发展这一法则,并被授予了将自身及同万物的共同生活无限地发展下去的权能和责任。”所谓人是“万物之王”,并不是说人是世界万物的主宰,可以任意根据自己的欲望和感情来支配万物;而是说在人与万物的关系中,人具有顺应性、主动性和责任性。也就是说,人必须遵循并顺应自然法则来驾驭万物,通过物质和精神的生产来改善人类及万物的共同生活。同时,人对自然法则具有能动性,这也是人和动物的区别所在,动物没有思维能力,不能去发现自然界的生成发展规律,而人可以运用自己的认识能力,去认识这种规律,“不仅保障自己的生存,而且有效地利用万物”。正是人的这种可以利用万物的权能,使人类必须承担起不同于动物的社会责任。

根据这种人性的本质观来进行经营管理,则要求经营者尊重人、关心人、信任人,并努力满足人的需求,充分发挥人的主观能动性,使人能够自我实现、自我发展。幸之助认为,在自然界中,只有人能顺应自然法则,认识并有效地利用自然法则,也只有人能当之无愧地承担维护自然法则的责任,人的责任性要求人必须要成为与自然界中的万物共生存共发展的中坚力量。但是,在现实生活中并不是每个人都能真正认识到并了解人的本质和责任,因此,这就给经营者提出了一项任务,企业经营中不但要激发人的主动性,而且要给予员工一定的指导,使员工能够明确“万物之王”的责任和义务。人要认清自己的本质,认清自己的使命,才能以积极的心态投入社会,才能在社会中实现自己的价值,使大众形成同心同德的整体力量,最终实现“万物之王”的使命,这是每个人的责任和任务。

基于这种对人性本质的认识,松下幸之助强调,松下公司的最大产品是人。好的企业,应该在出产品前先出人才,在制造产品前先培养人才,“造人”先于“造物”。松下公司是培养人的公司,只是在培育人才的同时兼做电器而已。为了使松下的员工能够认识到人性的本质和责任,幸之助为松下公司制定了一整套“精神法则”。松下精神包括七条(1933年制定了五条,1937年又增加了二条),即:产业报国;光明正大;亲爱精诚;奋斗向上;礼节谦让;顺应同化;感恩报德。松下公司的纲领是:“彻底认识产业者的使命,谋求社会的改善及进步,进而贡献于世界文化。”松下公司的信条是:“惟有全部员工和睦相处,共同协力,才有进步和发展可期,全体员工应本着至诚,团结一致,为社务尽力。”需要强调的是,所有这些精神法则,在幸之助眼里,不是培育对公司的愚忠,而是要造就员工的自主性,使员工能够明明白白做人。

松下幸之助关于人性与经营之间关系的这种认识,基本上放弃了西方式的个人主义尤其是自由主义的思路,立足于日本式的集体主义。在幸之助的言论里,对日本传统的武士、家臣的由衷赞扬,反映了他对责任意识的强调;在他的经营行为里,对家族式和衷共济的鼓吹,表达了他对集体主义的钟情;而他十分乐意在公司中充当家长角色,更反映了他对日本传统的偏爱。所以,幸之助心目中的“人”,不是自由主义的(他的言论几乎没有用过自由主义这一词汇,而是较多地使用民主主义,仅仅在市场自由化上认同自由主义)。他也基本上没有对战前日本走上军国主义道路的悲剧进行过深刻的反思,仅仅是用“过度竞争”来解释战争原因。所以,幸之助对美国式民主的作用是什么,仅解释为是繁荣的根基,而忽视其中个性的张扬。然而,日本战败的教训,美军占领期间的改造,幸之助本人在这一时期的一波三折,使他不至于在否定自由主义上走得过远,这使他能在“主导”和“自治”之间取得平衡。从这一意义上说,松下的成功,何尝不是从战败的教训走出来的!人们在倡导松下幸之助经营模式的时候,对他的这种特色不可不察。尤其是在企业文化建设中学习松下“精神法则”之时,更要处理好集体主义与个人自由的关系。一旦没有自由主义的制约,“人为万物之王”很有可能在逻辑上走向主宰论。一旦人能够主宰万物,那么优秀者就可能主宰愚劣者,董事长和总经理就可主宰整个公司。从松下所说的“经营者是企业组织内的‘王者’”一语,就可以看出这种迹象。幸之助依靠的是他对人类的关爱和对员工的仁慈与公平来约束“王者”的行为。他身后能不能保持这种平衡,对经营者是一个考验。

企业的社会责任

松下幸之助认为,企业经营就如同人的一生,人需要健康向上的人生观,企业也是如此。企业的经营从经营理念开始,正确的经营理念扎根于正确的人生观、社会观、世界观之上。立足于人的本质和自然法则而得到的正确的经营理念是广泛适用的。为了寻求这种正确的经营理念,幸之助提出了一些最基本的问题:企业是为什么而存在?企业的真正使命是什么?

很多人以为,企业的目的就是赚钱,就是利润最大化。对此,幸之助有他独特的见解。他承认,作为一名经营者,肯定要使企业获得利润,这一点不容置疑。他不否认企业获利的重要性,他直言不讳地说:“赚钱是企业的使命,商人的目的就是赢利。”如果一个企业不能赚钱,还能干什么?让它承担社会责任岂不是空话?一个富裕的人当然可以帮助贫穷的人,但一个人如果自己都吃不饱肚子,让他去接济非洲的难民有可能吗?但是,企业的存在目的绝不仅仅是赚钱,企业的真正使命,在于实现社会繁荣。赚钱是为企业履行社会责任创造条件的,一个不能为社会繁荣作出贡献的企业,哪怕赚钱再多,也背离了正道。幸之助宣称:“担负起贡献社会的责任是经营企业的第一要件。”“合理利润的获得,不仅是商人经营的目的,也是社会繁荣的基石。”

正因为如此,松下幸之助认为,私人资本兴办的企业姓“公”而不姓“私”。在市场经济条件下,企业作为独立自主的经济实体和利益主体,有自己的正当权益和利益追求,但企业又是离不开社会的。一个公正、法制和稳定的社会是企业生存和发展的必要条件,社会为企业提供生存空间,反过来,企业必须满足社会的需求,为社会提供自己的服务。这一关系决定着企业的性质。从本质上说,企业是社会公器,企业经营是公事而不是私事。这也正是把Company称之为“社”、“会社”、“公司”的本意。对此,松下幸之助的理念可以总结为:企业归根到底是社会的,是全体国民的财产和事业,因此,企业的使命就是要最大限度地提高人的生活质量和水平,克服贫困,贡献于社会的繁荣进步。一个人一旦办了一个企业,这个企业在本质上就属于社会而不是属于自己。幸之助的这一观点,突破了狭隘的企业经营观,将企业对自身效益的追求同企业应该承担的社会责任结合为一体,赋予了企业存在的更高层次的内涵。

这样,松下幸之助强调,人本不是以个人为本,而是以社会为本。企业承担的社会责任是企业存在的最高使命,而对利润的追求则是达成这一使命的必要手段。企业是通过利润来完成自己的社会使命的。基于这样的观念,幸之助认为,企业和社会、企业和国家是共存共荣的。市场经济的利益驱动是人类和各种组织进步的力量,但只有在组织和个人根植于社会的责任感上,才能真正在经济活动中产生积极向上的动力,从而为发展经济与为人类造福做出应有的贡献。如果脱离了社会责任感,利益驱动就会产生向下的动力,把企业拉入灾难的深渊,使赚钱促成邪恶。所以,幸之助特别反感讨价还价和打折销售,他认为,讨价还价的实质是表示出这样一种观念:赚钱变成了经商的惟一目的,这会导致企业堕落。

人才立业

人本理念和社会责任,决定了松下的基本经营方针是人才立业。在幸之助看来,世界是人组成的世界,社会是人组成的社会,企业是人组成的企业,因此,人是一切事情的决定因素。没有合适的人,就无法实现企业的使命。幸之助要培养的人才,不仅要有技术,而且要有经营能力,比经营能力更重要的是价值观念和坚韧精神。在他的经营实践中,幸之助总结出了一整套人才立业的做法。

松下幸之助在人才选择上是十分智慧的,他对人才的选择用“适当”一词来形容,而不强调“最优秀”。他常说,100分人才固然好,但可遇而不可求,十分难得。用人就要善于用70分的人才。这一选才准则,是幸之助在创业初期就形成的。当松下电器小打小闹的时候,它只能吸收那些三井、住友、三菱等大企业不要的人。而正是这些大公司看不上的“次级人才”,与幸之助一起创造了松下的辉煌。

更重要的是,幸之助认为,70分的人才更有进取心。他需要的人才是“不念初衷而虚心学习的人,不固守成规而常有新观念的人,爱护公司和公司成为一体的人,不自私而能为团体着想的人,有自主经营能力的人,随时随地都有热忱的人,能得体地指使上司的人,能忠于职守的人,有气概担当公司重任的人”。同100分的人才相比,70分的人才更容易达成这样的要求。如果企业中都是顶尖人才,这些人往往会站在以自我为中心的立场上,不能很好地同其他人沟通并相处,不能很好地把自身融入到集体之中。而70分人才则不同,他们会关注自己的不足,会虚心接受来自他人的建议和意见,会投入十分甚至十二分的努力来完成自己的工作,能够融入集体之中。尤其是对顶尖人才的仰视,会使他们明确自己将要达到的目标,激发他们自主自觉的学习动力,从而不断地成长为可以为企业发展做出贡献的人。这种人往往对企业心存感激,感恩心理会使他们对企业更加信赖并更加忠诚,有利于整个企业的团结与发展。

选择70分人才还有标准上的主次。幸之助强调,技术能力固然在企业中不可或缺,但从人才素质来看技术却最不重要,最重要的是毅力和热忱。常见到聪明反被聪明误的事例。人不怕笨拙,就怕取巧。毅力是成功的最基本因素,那些所谓没有“兴趣”,不大“喜欢”之类的说法,不过是缺乏毅力的托辞。选人就要选那些能够像日本谚语说的“在石头上坐三年”的人。还有,热忱领先于才干。才干出众的人有的是,而真正取得成功的是工作热忱。“一位主管可以没有智慧、才华,但对于工作的热忱,必须永葆领先。”

既然是选拔70分人才,那么,在使用他们时,就要扬长避短。所谓扬长避短,就是首先着眼于长处。幸之助多次以织田信长、丰臣秀吉和明智光秀为例说明这一问题。明智光秀的才干不亚于丰臣秀吉,然而,光秀只会挑织田信长的短处,而秀吉懂得赞扬织田信长的长处,二人的成败由此决定。凡是只看别人短处的人,大多失败。善于鼓励,而不是横加指责,是用人的关键。

在人才培养方面,幸之助突出强调价值观和人生观的培养。人才教育要先从企业使命观和经营理念的教育开始,只有让员工充分理解和认同所在企业的使命,才能使他们为实现这一使命而废寝忘食地去工作。当经营理念和使命在每个员工的心中生根发芽,与他们融为一体之后,就可以放手让他们在自己责任和权限范围内独立自主地施展创造力。对于这一点,幸之助提出有七把钥匙可以打开培养人才的大门:①懂得并强烈感受到人才培育的重要性;②有尊重人类的基本精神;③明确教诲经营理念和使命感;④教育员工企业必须获利;⑤致力于改善劳动条件和员工福利;⑥让员工拥有梦想;⑦以正确的人生观为基础。

幸之助认为,有了正确的价值观和人生观,还需要提升人才的内在竞争力。为了使松下的员工得到良好的训练,幸之助在公司设立了“教育培训中心”,下属八个研修所和一个高等职业学校。其中,中央社员研修所主要培训主任、科长、部长等领导干部;制造技术研修所主要培训技术人员和技术工人;营业研修所主要培训销售人员和营业管理人员;海外研修所负责培训松下在国外的工作人员和国内的外贸人员;东京、奈良、宇都宫和北大孤四个地区社员研修所分别负责培训公司在该地区的工作人员;高等职业训练学校负责培训松下刚招收进来的高中毕业生和青年职员。松下幸之助成长史

在日本的企业家中,松下幸之助无疑建立起了一座丰碑。他不但创立了一个神话般的企业,而且提出了一套具有普遍意义的经营哲学。从少年辍学转当学徒开始,他一步步滚爬摸打,在商海中走出了自己的一条独特道路。松下的管理思想,同他的成长经历密不可分。如果没有实践中的锤炼,就不可能产生出松下的经营之道。商海中获得成功的企业家虽然不计其数,但能够提炼出经营之道的企业家却寥寥无几,能够成为众口一词推崇膜拜的“神圣”级别人物,则只有松下幸之助当之无愧。在当代日本实业界,有“经营四圣”的说法。所谓“经营四圣”,是指索尼的创始人盛田昭夫、本田的创始人本田宗一郎、京瓷的创始人稻盛和夫和松下的创始人松下幸之助。在这“四圣”之中,松下幸之助独占鳌头,被誉为“经营之神”。要了解“经营之神”是怎样炼成的,得从他的学徒生涯说起。

学徒磨炼

松下幸之助(1894~1989)的传奇生涯,开始于他的学徒之旅。1894年11月,松下幸之助出生于日本和歌山县海草郡的一个小山村—和佐村(现为和歌山市祢宜地区)。松下这个姓,就是来自于当地的一颗大松树(这棵松树一直存在,直到1966年被雷击,1970年遭火灾被毁)。在这棵松树的荫庇下,松下幸之助度过了快乐的童年。在他出生时,他的家境还算可以,加上幸之助是八个孩子中年龄最小的,上面有哥哥姐姐罩着,他无忧无虑,生活充满阳光。幼童时期的优渥,是一个人心灵健康的重要条件。

但是,童年的快乐是短暂的。在幸之助五岁那年,他的父亲做大米投机生意失败了,家境逐渐落泊,连祖传的土地和房子都变卖了,全家搬出了和佐村的老宅,父亲开了一个木屐店维持生计,已经上中学四年级的大哥不得不辍学。两年后,木屐店倒闭了,幸之助的大哥、二哥、二姐也因流感而去世,全家陷入了困顿之中。尽管家境如此破败,幸之助依然还能上学,可见这个家庭对幸之助的关爱。

当松下幸之助读小学四年级时,他那在外打工的父亲来信,让幸之助到大阪当学徒。于是,年仅9岁而且初小尚未毕业的幸之助,于1904年11月来到大阪,开始在宫田火盆店中做小学徒。这种小店的学徒,什么杂务都得干。幸之助的主要工作是看孩子和磨火盆,他开始尝到劳作的艰辛,更感到少小离家的孤独。

真正的学徒生涯开始于自行车店。松下幸之助在火盆店只干了三个月,这个店就倒闭了。店老板有个朋友五代音吉,刚刚开了一家自行车店。好心的店老板推荐幸之助去了这个店。在这里,松下幸之助干了六年,奠定了他后来在商界大显身手的基础。尤其是老板娘的仁慈,对幸之助无形中产生了巨大的影响。例如,有一次店内集体照像,而幸之助出去办事,由于客户的延误未能按时赶回来。照像师等不及,等幸之助回来,照像已经结束了。对于一个从来没有照过像的少年来说,他对这件事看得很重,竟然哭起来。老板娘为了安慰他,专门带幸之助到照相馆去补拍。这件事使幸之助深受感动。直到老年,他还对这张同老板娘的合影十分珍爱,因为这是他学徒时期惟一的相片,也是他首次照像。一件看起来微不足道的小事,在他的脑海中打下了深深的烙印。从松下幸之助后来写的那些关于商业经营的文章可以看出,自行车店的学徒经历,养成了他后来提出管理哲学的基调。

松下幸之助的父亲,对他寄予了极大的希望。尽管幸之助只是一个小学徒,但他父亲一方面出于对自己破产的内疚,另一方面出于对天灾人祸变故之后家中惟一男孩的期望,一直给幸之助讲“天将降大任于斯人也”的道理。告诉他,日本历史上的名人,最初都是从当仆人、当家臣开始的。按幸之助的回忆,他的父亲常常鼓励他:“会有出息的。从前的伟人,小时候都在别人家做工,下苦功夫。所以不要觉得辛酸,一定要忍耐……”在幸之助11岁时,他的姐姐看到弟弟过于辛苦,更重要的是辍学会造成文化上的不足,想让他上夜校补上辍学的遗憾。然而,学徒是无法上夜校的,因为学徒没有上下班的概念,从早上5点多起床打扫卫生,到晚上11点打烊关闭店门,学徒都不能离开。当时,姐姐工作的储蓄所要招募勤杂工,姐姐同母亲商议后,就想让幸之助来应募,白天干勤杂,晚上读夜校。然而,他父亲得知后断然拒绝了这种想法。这位倔犟的家长认定,只有当学徒才会有出息,将来一定能发迹。他要求幸之助不要改变志向,即便不识字,也可以取得辉煌的成就。所以,幸之助后来感慨说,如果没有父亲指引道路,他就不会有今天。他虽然因辍学在知识上受到损失,然而却在经商实践的另一方面更早得到了开悟。

1910年,电能的应用给日本带来了光明的前景。大阪市开始开通电车。幸之助尽管只有17岁,但他看到了电气的未来。当时他单纯地认为,有了电车后,自行车的需求就会减少。于是,他决定改变自己的人生轨迹,投身电气业。在他离开自行车店时,有一个很有意思的插曲。他以一个青年对未来的大胆想象,把自己的事业定位在电器上,求他的姐夫帮忙去刚刚成立不久的电灯公司工作。然而,自行车店的老板对幸之助那么好,使他又无法面对老板说出离开的理由。于是,幸之助采取了一个孩子气的做法—偷偷离开。可以想见,年轻的幸之助这时已经遇到了人生常见的矛盾。他对未来的幻想和信念,支持着自己的追求;而对老板的信任和关怀,又使他难以启齿告别。正是这种憧憬未来的坚定信念和无法割舍的丰富情感,成为后来松下事业的主旋律。

离开自行车店的松下幸之助,并未能立即到电灯公司上班。于是,他开始在姐夫工作的水泥厂打零工,干起了劳动强度非常大的搬运水泥。这三个月,他承受了以前从来没有过的的重体力活磨炼,使他对生活的艰辛有了刻骨铭心的感受。三个月后,他被招进电灯公司,成为一个室内布线的电工助手。幸之助以前受过的磨炼,使他很快就在这个行当脱颖而出。又是三个月之后,他由助手提升为工头。他后来的回忆中对此不无得意,强调这种提升属于特例。日本是一个等级森严的国家,工头和助手之间的距离,不亚于主人和仆人。比如说,干完工作,助手马上要给工头打水洗手,甚至工头的木屐坏了,也要交给助手去修理。日本这种独有的社会等级,给松下幸之助打下了深刻的思想烙印。从被人吆三喝四的水泥搬运工,到颐指气使的电工工头,使幸之助从中既看到了日本企业经营的特色,又看到了其中蕴含的问题。到24岁时,他已经被提升为电灯公司的检查员,每天巡视十多个工作项目。但他对这种受到别人羡慕的监控工作没有多大热情,而是对自己的工作成就十分看重。自己安装的海水浴场彩灯,剧院中耀眼的照明设施,给幸之助带来了强烈的满足感。这个时候,他同井植梅野结婚了,也开始考虑独立创业了。

插座起家

在电灯公司的工作中,幸之助琢磨发明了一种新型的灯头插座。凭借他的直觉,他深信这种插座有广泛的用途,但是遭到了上司的否定。于是,年轻气盛的幸之助辞了职,下决心自己打出一片新的天下。正是这一决定,使他没有停留在小发明的层次上,而是很快进入了经营实战。

松下幸之助的“下海”,完全靠的是对这个小发明的信念。他当时手头只有不到100元的积蓄,且单枪匹马。他向原来同事的朋友借了100元,招来了自己的内弟井植岁男,拉了几个想做一番事业的年轻人,就在自己狭小的住处(长四张半榻榻米,宽两张榻榻米)开了个小作坊,开始实践自己的梦想。

万事开头难。幸之助有了灯头插座的设计,却没有实际制造过。一开始,他连灯头外壳的原料是什么都不清楚,经过多方请教好不容易才弄清了灯头的制作方法,用了4个月时间,总算制造出了产品。没有周转资金,他把能当的东西都送进了当铺。

然而,再好的发明,没有市场的承认也是白搭。拿出产品后,如何销售出去,给幸之助上了结结实实一课。他们拿上自己的灯头插座,到各个电器店去推销,很少有店家看好这种新产品,费尽口舌,走遍了大阪的店铺,只卖出去100多个,收入10元。初战受挫,使幸之助明白了经营的艰难。他只得让别人自谋生路,小作坊只剩下他和井植岁男两人。

天无绝人之路。正当松下幸之助一筹莫展时,他接到了一笔制作电风扇底座的订单,而且商家承诺只要做得好还会后续订货。松下和井植两人,开始没黑没明地赶做这个底座。这次终于成功了,一个月时间内,他们完成了首笔订单,赚了80多元利润。此后,持续做这种电风扇底座,使松下的生意慢慢有了发展。正是这种经历,给幸之助后来的经营思想带来了极大的影响。初出道的第一笔生意,使他明白了市场承认和用户满意的重要性。任何发明,哪怕发明家本人怎样呕心沥血,市场和用户不买账,就意味着没有生路。然而,灯头插座的努力也没有白花。没有插座的努力,就不可能带来电扇底座的订单。而电扇底座的收益,又盘活了灯头插座,使这一发明也真正投入生产并逐渐在市场上推广开来。

站住脚以后,松下幸之助开始计划“从事真正的电器设备的研究和生产”,靠卧室兼作坊不是长久之计。于是,1918年幸之助在大阪市租了一处房子,创立了松下电气器具制作所。后来闻名天下的“松下产品”,就从这里启航。

这一制作所,靠灯头插座积累了自己的“第一桶金”,业绩稳步发展。倾注了幸之助心血的灯头插座,以其质量取胜,终于得到了市场的承认。大阪的一家名为吉田的商店,还以3000元保证金来独家代理这一产品的销售。同时,产品也打进了东京市场。

在东京,幸之助又经受了一次新的考验,这次考验来自商家的竞争。当松下的灯头插座开始在东京销售后,却遭遇到东京店家的抵制。同行是冤家,面对松下质量上乘的灯头插座,东京的店家采取了不正当的竞争手段,他们压价甩卖,试图把实力尚不雄厚的松下产品挤出市场。在东京店家的压力下,大阪的吉田商店解除了总代理合同。员工增加了,负债增加了,产能扩大了,销售却出问题了。对任何一个企业来说,这都是令人头疼的。尤其是在东京,原来是由吉田商店一手总代理的,松下自己从来没有同东京的商家打过交道。对此,幸之助决定,自己到东京,拿着地图,一家一家找商家谈。为了节省经费和节省时间,坐夜班车到东京,奔波一天,再坐夜班车返回大阪。终于,幸之助渡过了这一难关。从这时起,他对经营中间的竞争有了自己的看法。他后来特别强调以质量竞争和以服务取胜,十分厌恶压价倾销和排斥同行的不正当竞争手段,都同这一经历有关。

到1922年,松下已经有4500元的结余,有了比较坚实的经营基础,也得到了社会的认可。这时,幸之助开起了顺风船,花了7000元建立新厂房。随着经营的扩大,幸之助开始开发新的产品,这就是使松下打出声望的自行车灯。1923年,幸之助用新型干电池灯来取代过去的煤油灯,制造出可使用30~50小时的弹头型自行车灯。价格只有三十几文钱,而用蜡烛一小时也要两文钱。松下深信这种车灯能够流行,但批发商并不看好。为了促销,他采取了一个商界前所未有的方法,把产品寄放在自行车店,开着灯演示,看看到底能亮多长时间,吸引了大量购买者。这样,先有了最终端的顾客需求,然后由自行车店发起订货,由于销路好,批发商反过来找松下订货。原来的销售顺序是“制造商→批发商→零售商→顾客”,现在变成了“顾客→零售商→批发商→制造商”。由此,新的经营方式诞生了。

很快,松下又生产出了多用途的方形干电池灯。这种灯是松下的一个标志,从它开始,松下首次使用了National商标(这个商标一直在使用,但是,在松下产品出口过程中,National由于其“国家”的含义,许多国家拒绝为其注册。于是,松下又创立了面向国外的Panasonic商标。到2004年,松下统一品牌,出口市场一律采用Panasonic)。这次方形灯的宣传,松下采取了主动的实物示范方式。他采取的办法是免费向市场提供1万个试用样品。由于这种灯的电池是由东京的冈田电池公司提供的,于是,松下幸之助拜访了冈田,请求他免费提供1万个电池。他向冈田说明了情况,保证一年能够销售20万个电池。如果销量达不到20万个,就由松下支付这1万个电池的费用。到年终一盘点,全年销售了47万个。为此,冈田专程来到大阪,穿着非常庄重的带有徽章的和服,以礼金的形式送来了当初这1万个电池的定金并致谢。在冈田眼里,松下的这一举动,开创了电池经销史的新纪元。

随着松下业务的扩展,日本著名的银行住友银行有个姓伊藤的营业员慧眼独具,主动找上门来要为松下服务。对此,幸之助一开始持拒绝态度。因为松下一直同国立第十五银行打交道。十五银行也是日本五大银行之一,同松下合作得十分融洽,所以,幸之助不想同其他银行发生业务往来。但是,伊藤来过十多次,其热情让幸之助难以推脱。于是,幸之助提出了一个史无前例、让所有人都惊讶的先决前提。他要求住友银行先答应,在任何情况下可以随时让松下无条件贷款2万元。对方起初十分为难,经过请示上层,住友总部提出,贷款的惯例是要有抵押,可以用松下的工厂设备和地产抵押作为贷款条件。幸之助在谈判中表示,以抵押为条件,说明还是没有对松下的信任。而松下认为,自己的声誉远比抵押物重要。住友银行最后答应了这个前提。于1926年达成了协议。谁也没有想到,正是这个协议,使松下冥冥之中得到了天助。1927年,日本爆发银行危机,十五银行开始停止兑付。这时,幸之助想到了此前与住友的协议,而在金融业已经发生挤兑和停业的情况下,住友明确表示原来的协议有效,松下可以随时从住友无条件贷款。由此开始,松下把银行业务转移到了住友。在金融危机面前,松下和住友的信誉都经受住了考验。

1929年底,经济情况更为艰难。松下的产品销量减少了一半,库存猛增。几乎所有商家考虑的不是建新厂,而是建仓库。在这种局势下,多数企业开始裁员。日本员工待遇最好的钟纺公司,也开始降低工资。当时幸之助正在病中,公司的上层来同他商量裁员问题。幸之助经过认真考虑,提出了方案:工人一个不裁,工资一分不减,但产量减半,而且员工取消休假,全体动员从事销售,消化库存。用了两个月时间,库存消化完毕,生产恢复正常。经过这次事件,松下考验了自己的员工队伍,一种上下一心、全力以赴的风气逐渐形成。

产品、市场、经营网络、人力资源和商业信誉都具备了,松下到了扬帆远航的时候了。

重新起步和腾飞

1932年,松下幸之助对企业经营有了自己的领悟,提出了著名的“自来水哲学”。尽管松下已经有14年的发展,但到这一时刻,幸之助才真正认识了企业的历史地位。为了铭记住这一时刻,实现企业的使命,他决定,以1932年5月5日为松下公司的创业纪念日。更令人惊讶的是,他为松下公司制定了250年的目标,以25年为一个周期,分10期来实现这个目标。

但是,理念上豁然开朗和现实中步步艰难形成鲜明的对照。30年代的世界经济危机,使日本进入了政府强力干预的经济统制时期。松下的经营刚刚有所起色,就被卷入了日本发动的侵略战争之中。二战期间,松下公司在政府要求下,停止民品生产并开始从事军品生产,先是为军方生产200吨的木船,后来又为军方生产木制飞机。造船刚刚进入规模,飞机刚刚生产出样品,日本就接受了波茨坦公告无条件投降,进入了美国占领时期。战败不仅使日本军方拖欠松下的大笔款项一风吹了,而且使松下公司被美国占领当局列为清查对象。松下公司被指定为“财阀”,幸之助本人也被列入因制造军品的战争责任必须撤销职务的名单。经过数年的交涉,尤其是松下公司的工会发起了签名运动,向占领当局请愿,要求幸之助留任,才使松下公司半死不活地维持下来。

列入财阀意味着资产被冻结,撤职和留任的交涉则严重影响着经营活动的开展。所以,松下公司在战后的5年中,生产停滞,债台高筑,几乎到了破产的边缘。在这种情况下,幸之助做了他从来不愿意做但不得不做的事—大面积裁员,公司由1.5万人减少到3500人。

1950年起,伴随着日本的战后重建,松下公司开始重振旗鼓。为了使松下不再出现偏差,幸之助专程到美国考察学习。不看不知道,一看吓一跳。美国的发达和富有使幸之助感慨万分。比如,美国GE生产的收音机24美元,而工人日工资12美元。松下的收音机9000日元,而工人的月工资6000日元。美国人两天的工资就可以买一个收音机,日本人需要一个半月的工资。一个纽约市的用电量,就相当于整个日本全国的用电量。在美国开了眼界,使幸之助从此极力赞扬美国式民主。从美国一返回,幸之助又开始主持与荷兰飞利浦公司的合作,以引进技术来带动松下新的起飞。

在与飞利浦的引进与合资谈判中,飞利浦公司提出由松下支付6%的技术指导费。幸之助认为,引进技术支付技术指导费没错,但新公司是双方合资性质,拥有技术的飞利浦一方取得技术指导费,那么,从事经营的松下一方就应当取得经营指导费。最后,双方于1952年达成协议,飞利浦获得4.5%的技术指导费,松下获得3%的经营指导费。这在企业经营中开了先例,松下也获得了飞利浦的尊敬,更重要的是由此树立了经营管理与技术创新并重的理念。

在重视经营创造价值的同时,松下并不否定技术的作用。幸之助强调,要真正在技术上领先,必须有自己的研究和独创。这种独创不仅仅是产品,而且是生产技艺和工作母机。于是,松下于1953年成立了中央研究所,设置了专门的机械制造厂,为自己的生产线开发最新的机器设备。

1956年以后,松下公司的经营进入了快速发展阶段。幸之助当时制定的计划是五年之内营业额翻四倍,由200亿增加到800亿(后来实际达到了1000亿)。1955年以后,松下的出口贸易快速增长。1961年,随着松下公司的发展,66岁的幸之助宣布辞去社长(总经理),改任会长(董事长),顺利完成了经营权的交接。

幸之助尽管交出了经营权,但并没有对公司撒手。3年后(1964年)松下的经营遇到了难关,日本企业明显表现出产能过剩,许多公司纷纷破产,松下公司也出现了积压和赤字。这时,幸之助再度出马,主持召开了松下代理商和营销商的恳谈会。这时他才发现,200多家松下的销售商,有170多家在亏损,恳谈会几乎变成了诉苦会。幸之助真诚地向与会者表示道歉,在取得互相谅解后探讨改善经营的方法。此后,他不顾69岁的高龄,暂时替代主管销售的营业部部长安川洋君,站到销售第一线,主持进行了松下的销售经营全盘改革。这次改革,使用户至上的服务思想得到了真正的贯彻,松下公司再次走到了日本经济起飞的前沿。

随着经营的好转和日本参加世贸组织(当时称关贸总协定)的承诺,1967年,日本实行了资本自由化。在这一局势面前,幸之助对松下公司提出了新的短期目标:消除浪费,创造繁荣,更新观念,再度创业,五年内在经营效益和员工工资上超过欧洲,赶上美国。到1971年,松下电器的工资果然实现了“超欧赶美”的预期。

致力于社会公益

1968年,松下公司举行了创业50周年庆典。从此开始,松下公司在做生意的同时,有意识地向承担社会责任方向发展。在幸之助的主持下,组建了以纪念明治维新志士为主题内容的灵山显彰会,松下公司还为“儿童交通事故预防基金”捐款50亿(分15年支付)。针对日本各地发展不平衡现象,松下公司采取了一个特殊的工厂布局措施,就是在发展不足、人口大量减少的欠发达地区设厂。尽管在欠发达地区(如鹿儿岛)设厂会增加企业成本,但却能带动当地的经济和社会发展。1971年,幸之助又担任了飞鸟保护财团的理事长(飞鸟文化是日本奈良著名的考古文化,大约相当于中国的隋朝时期,财团是日本对基金会的称谓),致力于历史遗产的保存和日本精神的传承。

1973年,80岁的松下幸之助下定决心,辞去会长一职,仅仅担任顾问。但他依然没有停止思考和社会活动,恰恰相反,他对社会事务更加关心,也对经营管理有了更多思考。在他辞去会长的同时,为“社会福利基金”捐赠了50亿元。1979年,他访问中国并向中国提出了中日合资建立电子企业的设想。1980年,幸之助设立了“松下政经塾”,致力于培养面向未来的新型人才。1983年,幸之助又担任了国际科学技术财团会长和21世纪协会会长。1988年,幸之助向国际科学技术财团赠送松下电器株式会社股份1000万股。大量捐赠、慈善、公益活动,几乎花费了这位老人的所有时间和大部分财力;关于企业经营、国家管理和社会发展的思考,成为他这一时期著述的主题。1989年4月27日,松下幸之助逝世。

松下幸之助的事迹,得到了世界的关注。1958年9月,美国《时代》周刊就刊登了《发明家松下幸之助》的介绍,强调他不仅经商,而且从事精神领域和社会领域的研究,用不同于普通经营者的眼光观察世界。1962年2月,松下幸之助成为《时代》周刊的封面人物,次年,他们夫妇参加了《时代》创刊40周年的庆祝仪式。1964年,《生活》杂志对幸之助进行了报道。这些杂志特别强调幸之助的思想家、人道主义者角色,认为他是兼具汽车大王福特和牧师作家霍雷肖·艾尔杰(HoratioAlger,1932-1899,他写了大量穷小子变大富豪的励志小册子,销售量达2000万册)特色于一身的人物。

在日本,松下幸之助被尊为家电行业的领袖,一生获得的荣誉数不胜数,他先后获得日本的五次授勋(蓝绶宝章、二等旭日重光勋章、一等瑞宝勋章、一等旭日大勋章、一等旭日桐花大勋章),获得荷兰、巴西、比利时、马来西亚、西班牙等国家的授勋或爵位。作为仅仅上过小学四年级的辍学生,他孜孜不倦地著述(多数是口述由别人整理),写了大量明白浅显又富含哲理的文章。台北的名人出版事业公司编辑出版的《松下幸之助经营管理全集》达25卷之多(包括2卷访谈录,2卷学者评论)。由于他在经营之道上的不断探讨,1965年,松下幸之助获得日本早稻田大学的名誉法学博士称号,1986年,获得美国马里兰大学的荣誉博士称号。

用俗人的眼光看,松下幸之助名利双收,福寿两全;用商人的眼光看,他事业发达,公司兴盛;用文人的眼光看,他实现了立德、立言、立功三不朽。经营成功的企业家如过江之鲫,而像松下幸之助这样能够进入管理思想史的企业家却为数不多。尽管在幸之助逝世后,松下公司的经营已经产生了种种问题,但是,这不能抹去松下幸之助的成就和思想贡献。正如福特公司被通用公司超越了,但亨利·福特依然被人们铭记,通用汽车陷入破产困境,而艾尔弗雷德·斯隆却英名常在一样,不管松下公司后来发生了什么,松下幸之助当初的实践和思考,都给管理学留下了一幅浓墨重彩的画卷,名垂史册。

回观松下幸之助的成就

松下幸之助是企业经营界的一个异数,而且是只有日本才能孕育出来的异数。

观看松下幸之助的经营哲学,你会觉得,传统与新潮,东方与西方,保守与创新,在他身上奇妙地融为一体。在其他地方很有可能发生冲突的东西,在幸之助身上却显得那么和谐。

对于中国人来说,年长者看到松下幸之助的文章,可能会有一种亲切感。有点文史基础的,会觉得幸之助的经营之道,明明就是中国古籍《大学》的商业现代版。所谓企业价值观云云,不就是“大学之道,在明明德,在亲民,在止于至善”吗?所谓经营之道,不就是“知止而后有定,定而后能静,静而后能安,安而后能虑,虑而后能得。物有本末,事有终始,知所先后,则近道矣”吗?所谓用人之道,不就是“格物致知,意诚心正,修身齐家,治国平天下”吗?但对80后来说,可能松下幸之助就没有那么大的吸引力,那些浅近通俗而且略嫌重复的说教,似乎同《大话西游》中的唐僧差不多。

被西方管理学说洗过脑的学者,可能会觉得松下幸之助的唠叨没有多大学术价值。然而,如果推崇德鲁克,当看到德鲁克对公司精神的强调,对企业社会责任的论证等内容时,就会发现,德鲁克的论证,与幸之助的思考如出一辙。德鲁克强调,公司精神是公司生存和发展的基本支撑点,它影响着企业文化,更影响着重大政策。公司的核心理念、经营哲学、领导方式、用人机制等等,乃至公司所有的行为准则,都受公司精神的支配。而这种精神又来自于公司核心人物的价值观。尤其是德鲁克关于公司必须赚钱,而赚钱的目的是履行社会责任的论证,几乎是沿着幸之助的思路展开的。所不同处在于,德鲁克是进行理性的论证,幸之助则闪现出智慧的火花,可见,松下幸之助并非浪得虚名。

松下幸之助的个人经历,对他的思想影响极大。小时候的学徒磨炼,使他养成了商人的基本品质。而经历过溺水、车祸等死里逃生的考验,经历过肺结核病的折磨,使他承受了多种“天将降大任于斯人也”的磨难,由此而萌发出领袖群伦的宿命意识。随着幸之助的事业一步步走向成功,他深信,上天赋予了他拯救关西商界、拯救日本、甚至拯救世界的使命。在二战前后,他几乎就是日本关西商界的领袖。随着日本的崛起,他将自己思考的重点转移到振兴日本、为世界作出贡献方面。而这一切,都同日本关西和关东的冲突有关。

日本的企业中,一直存在关西和关东的抗争。大阪是关西商业重镇,东京是关东新兴城市。在大阪人眼里,关东都是暴发户;而在东京人眼里,关西全是土老帽。关西以历史而自豪,关东以新潮而高傲。两地的电器制式都不一样,一直互相较劲要争个你高我低。在索尼的BATA和松下的VHS录像机制式之争中,尽管松下冠冕堂皇地强调这是出于顾客需要,但是,谁也难以保证其中就没有关东和关西抗争的因素。松下幸之助之所以没有停步在做一个成功的商人层次上,而要成为全日本的经营哲学领袖,同这种复兴关西商业领导地位的暗中努力不无关系。当然,日本人的性格和脾气,使这种叫劲不会挂在脸上,更不会诉诸文字。

正是这种环境,使松下幸之助不满足于仅仅做一个成功的企业家,他在事业取得成就后,几乎把全部精力放在哲学式思考上面,从而使他在管理学发展史上赢得了思想家的地位。关西的商家,不屑于在凯恩斯或者加尔布雷斯那儿寻求艰深的理论支持,甚至连亚当·斯密也不大提起,而是要用自己的实绩说话。而幸之助一口柔和的关西腔,率直、平易、浅白但又富于哲理的语录体,没有读过多少书却取得空前成功的雄厚资本,使他成为日本商业思想最恰当的代言人。

至于松下公司发展过程中采用的经营模式,比如事业部制、终身雇佣制、年功序列制等,尽管也受到业界的广泛推崇,但原创性并不强烈。真正有价值的,是幸之助对企业使命的不断探讨,以及由此扩展到对政治和社会的研究。从管理思想的角度看,在一定意义上,“PHP”可能比松下电器的贡献更大。

经过二战的挫折,反思战争责任和对和平的追求,使松下幸之助在战后最艰难的时期开始了PHP(PeaceandHappinessthroughProsperity)研究。1946年,在松下的企业经营尚且处于焦头烂额的情况下,幸之助就主持成立了PHP研究所,而且提出了“民主主义就是繁荣主义”的观点,讨论企业的社会责任。1952年,他又组建了新政治经济研究会,探讨日本的政治体制和社会发展问题。幸之助本人,还曾在这个研究会中提出日本由工业立国、贸易立国转向旅游立国的设想。在幸之助辞去松下社长职务后,他开始再度重视PHP研究,并且把眼光由公司经营扩展到国家经营。1963年,他在国际经营科学委员会上发表《我的经营哲学》讲演,认为国家与企业一样,必须要有合适的经营理念。对于日本战后的发展,幸之助有他独到的看法。60年代,许多人为日本在战后的快速崛起而咋舌,但幸之助认为,日本的战后恢复靠的是外力,如果不发展自己的国际竞争力,不振奋国民精神,那么,日本就会在发展中遇到危机。这些思考,使松下幸之助不断赢得日本乃至世界的关注。

“PHP”计划的核心,就是通过繁荣带来和平与幸福。松下幸之助期望通过这一研究,从根本上矫正社会的不良状况,立足于从人性、从诚实正直的角度来思考社会各种制度的应有形态,以促进人类走向共同繁荣之路。1946年,PHP杂志正式创刊。从此,这个杂志就成为松下幸之助思想的发言阵地。PHP研究所的研究课题五花八门,只要是有关社会发展的内容无所不包,在战后不久刚刚开始PHP研究时,幸之助就把PHP起步阶段的研究概括为十个方面,包括:研究使劳动者生活丰富,研究人类智力、情感和意志的施展发挥,促进人们对民主的正确理解,研究劳资冲突与合作的各种问题,研究如何减少浪费来促进繁荣,研究如何降低政府的行政成本和提高行政效率,研究如何实现税收负担的合理公正,研究产业结构、企业分工和经济政策,研究如何充分发挥劳动者的作用,研究如何改革教育培养人才。正是这种广泛关注,使幸之助的思想不断扩展与深化。

但是,幸之助强调,PHP研究绝不能变成象牙塔中的书斋作业,而是要付诸实践。他说:“在研究所里,把诸先觉者解释清楚的大自然的规律的学说作为引导,广泛采纳一般大众的共同的智慧,进而吸取现代各方面的有识者的评论,综合所谓天地之声,总结出符合现状的方策来。但是,这种研究最终是以实行为目的的,不能满足于单纯总结归纳研究的结果。”幸之助的聪明之处恰恰就在这里,他的思考最终走向对整个人类前途的思考,以1972年出版的《思考人类》为标志,使他的思想再一次升华。然而,他始终强调自己是实践者。

我们要把握松下幸之助的思想,必须考察他的实践。然而,如果仅仅看到他的具体做法,而对他的思想视而不见,则会流于技巧式学习甚至模仿。社歌语录之类东西,在松下幸之助的手里,是取得成功的措施,脱离了他的思想内涵,就可能变为弄巧成拙的东施效颦。作为以实业起家的管理思想家,松下幸之助在管理实践和管理思想的统一上做出了可贵的探索,在一定程度上矫正了管理学书斋化的弊病,回归到实践出真知的早期传统,同时又给这一传统注入了展望未来的新内容。借用大前研一的话来说,松下的公司之歌[:en]Matsushita’s help by the Japanese known as the “god of business.” He founded the Matsushita Electric, in the industry has a huge impact. He summed up the practice of business and their own sentimental thinking, put forward a set of business philosophy. He proposed the dam-style management, is to avoid cyclical corporate shocks, reducing the impact of uncertainty on the guiding ideology of the enterprise; his glass-type business, the company’s business philosophy, Is open and transparent management of the activities of the means to establish the enterprise in the frank and trust. Matsushita’s help in the people of this concept, combined with the actual development of Japan has a creative. In the Panasonic there, of course, there are scientific management, but more of an art. Thinking about the business, so that he eventually developed into the future of human concern. Unknown who often only see Panasonic’s social songs and team, and Panasonic’s true spirit lies in the excavation of human nature. To profit entrepreneurs such as the river carp, and can be as Matsushita’s fortunate thinking that entrepreneurs are few. Moving away, Panasonic’s specific practices may become obsolete, but his spirit has been included in the annals of management thought.
Panasonic’s business philosophy.

Matsushita’s help in the long-term business, formed its own unique business philosophy. To sum up, to “water philosophy”, “dam-style management” and “glass” is the most important. In particular, “water philosophy”, was fortunate to help business as the fundamental concept, and as his autobiography.
Philosophy of running water
Matsushita Electric Appliances Manufacturing Co., Ltd. was founded in March 7, 1918, but fortunately, the company’s business but the company’s anniversary is determined in May 5, 1932. No reason for him, because this day he put forward the “water philosophy.”

 

Fortunately, the help of view, the enterprise’s business is far from the spirit of the body is important. Although Matsushita Electric has been in operation for more than a decade, it was nothing more than a manufacturer of other companies before the birth of the Philosophy of Water. Until this day, in the help of the mind to help long-term hovering, hard thinking finally have the answer, he understands the mission of the enterprise. Therefore, this day is the beginning of Panasonic’s business.
The so-called “water philosophy”, is Matsushita’s mission to help the metaphor of the enterprise. For this mission, the simplest statement is to eliminate world poverty, so that human prosperity and prosperity. Fortunately, to help themselves, said: “What is the mission of the enterprise? For several days I think about this problem until late at night, and finally have the answer. Simply put, is to eliminate poverty in the world.For example, water inside the water has its value, The roadside water will not be paid will not be blamed, because the water resources are relatively rich.Enterprise responsibility is not to make the world rich to eliminate all the inconvenience it? “” The ultimate goal of business is not interest, but will be pinned on our shoulder The public’s hope through the digital show, to complete our obligations to society.Company’s responsibility is: the public needs things become as cheap as tap water. “Fortunately with the help of words to express, management is from the” no “which manufacturing “Yes”, through the production activities for all human beings to bring abundant affluence of life.


In essence, the “water philosophy” is through industrial means of production, the original only for a few people to enjoy the luxury into the general public can enjoy the popularity of goods. Business operators eye to be pegged to the pursuit of the desire of life and progress, rather than pegged to the customer’s purse. The market is created by cheap and good products, rather than relying on dealer rebates calculated out of discounts, but not by cheating to deceive customers to sell out. As a result, Panasonic laid the basic business policy: quality must be given priority, the price must be low, the service must be thoughtful. It is this operating principles, so that Panasonic’s customers get the trust, through a difficult one after another, and gradually embarked on the road to growth.

 

“Water philosophy” was born, Panasonic operating experience in itself is the accumulation and sublimation. As early as 1927, Matsushita established the first electric department, plans to produce iron. At that time the whole Japanese iron sales of not more than 100,000 per year, each price of 4 to 5 yuan. Fortunately, the help is that: “so convenient things, but because the price is expensive, many people want to use can not afford .So, as long as lower prices, there will be many people to buy.If many people want to buy, at first glance to produce one “Matsushita decided to mass production to reduce prices, the monthly production of 10,000, the sale of a large number of sales, the price is very low, Price 3.2 yuan, the results of great success. This case is almost the United States Ford T-car replica of Japan. Therefore, the US media reports to Matsushita and Henry Ford’s par. In this regard, the fortunate to help themselves concluded that: “the production of popular products, not only to launch a better quality, price should be at least 30% cheaper.”
Water philosophy in the era of fortune-telling has great power, it is bound to Panasonic to the scale of business on the road. Household appliances in Japan and the rapid spread of the world, Matsushita company contributed. The poor in the United States can drive a car, thanks to the Ford of the year; today’s beggars can watch TV, thanks to the year’s fortune.
This water philosophy, so that Panasonic ‘s business with particular emphasis on customer – oriented, concerned about the needs of the public. Panasonic in product development to imitate the main, take the short flat fast route. Once a promising new product is found, Matsushita will take it and make a “new product” that is even higher in quality and lower in price than the original inventor. “Imitation of the innovation” so that Panasonic has made operational success. Its products, generally have a large volume, low cost, high quality, good service these four characteristics, to win a higher market share. However, in the real original on the slightly inferior. Leading the industry pioneer of the original innovation, will be limited by the philosophy of the water. Panasonic developed computer example, is a good description. In the computer has just emerged, Panasonic is also committed to computer research and development. To 1964, Panasonic has been in the computer industry has invested more than a dozen million, including Panasonic, including seven computer companies invested 200 million, the establishment of the Japan Electronics Industry Promotion Association, the common computer development. However, the US Chase Manhattan Bank, vice president of the Fortunately, with the help of the chat said that the world’s computer manufacturers are poor management, the United States is only one IBM continues, even GE are inadequate, there are seven companies in Japan is not too much. Fortunately, help decisive decision, withstand the pressure of public opinion, give up the computer. In the eyes of fortune, decisive abandon the high cost of the project is a wise move. However, this abandonment is likely to give up the prospects for the future. After entering the 21st century, Panasonic appeared in the business problems, and even has not been able to remove the “imitation of the King” hat, and this philosophy is closely related to water.
However, it is too early to say that the philosophy of water is outdated. Although the Panasonic company has changed the fortunes of the business strategy, however, the philosophy of running water contains the idea of service, the concept of customer first, to promote social prosperity and prosperity of the desire is not obsolete. Matsushita established the concept of succession, change the past Panasonic strategy, the two are not contradictory. We want to think, is precisely the relationship between ideas and strategies. The deep value of running water philosophy, is to ultimately positioning the corporate mission on social responsibility. It is this logic, so that the philosophy of water, including Drucker, including many scholars praise.

Dam – style management
“Dyke type management” is the logic of “running water philosophy” in enterprise operation. In February 1965, Kusumichi put forward the concept at the Kansai Business Forum and gave a lecture entitled “Levee Management and Proper Management”. He said: “I want to advocate a ‘dam management’ approach here, which is an effective way of doing business.Why do we need to repair the dam because it does not create any value for the river? It will become a flood, bringing a huge disaster; and if the event of drought will result in reduced water.Therefore, to the appropriate location in the river dams, one to adjust the water flow, and second, the use of hydroelectric power. Treasure every gift from God, and be used effectively.This will not only ensure the safety, but also to create value.Manage the company is not the same reason? Business also need dams. “” I said the dam management, from the beginning It should have a backup equipment, how much is. In this case, even if there are some changes in the economy or changes in demand, but also to ensure that the supply of goods will not lead to price increases, as long as the back-up equipment can run.On the contrary, Too much, you can let the equipment to suspend operation.This principle and the need to adjust the dam in the same amount of water.Financial, inventory and personnel also need to ‘dam’. “” A correct understanding of the significance of dam management, The operation becomes more stable, high profits, dam management can bring true social stability and prosperity.

 

The essence of dam-style management is to avoid cyclical shocks in the course of business, reducing the impact of uncertainty on the enterprise. Entrepreneurs in the construction of more than one kind of dam, the market as the river, operating as a dam. The function of the dam is varied, water storage, flood control, water supply, power generation, and so are ultimately dam. For enterprises, the need to establish the main dam.
Equipment dams. Can not make the equipment 100% put into operation, the kind of “full load” of the idea, may make the enterprise to run the bow string stretched too tight, the environment a slight sign of trouble, will pull off the bowstring. In general, an enterprise operating in the equipment only 89% of the case is still profitable, in order to maintain normal operation. Capacity to maintain one or two percent of the remaining capacity, is the basic conditions for business strain.
Stock dams. Product inventory to be appropriate, the role of these stocks have two directions, the internal line as a problem when the buffer, the external market fluctuations as a buffer. Just like the establishment of ancient China, “often open”, harvest is poor, poor harvest is Tiao, to maintain a broad market supply balance, so that prices remain stable. Fortunately, the idea of “dam-style operation” itself is from the United States Carbide Corporation (UnionCarbideCorporation) battery price inspiration. Its batteries sold for 15 cents 30 years ago, and now sell 15 cents. Fortunately, help think of, 30 years, raw materials, technology, the market certainly has a huge change, and this product can keep prices unchanged for 30 years, even without the impact of inflation, is undoubtedly in the operating mechanism has a solid ” Dam “.

 

Capital funds. New construction projects, also need to have a buffer dam. A billion-dollar project, need to have 11.2 billion of funds to start, otherwise, it is likely to cause “unfinished”, not only builders embarrassed, and early investment is also likely to get drunk.

 

Products dams. In the midst of a product, it is necessary to launch the next new product, which requires a product into production and even before production, follow-up of new product development will begin.

 

Psychological dyke. The economy has ups and downs, any enterprise, the business process can never be smooth sailing. Therefore, from the chairman of the board of directors to the grass-roots employees, must have sufficient psychological preparation for environmental change, in the psychological to change the status quo in action to change the system change, to achieve business autonomy.

 

Dyke-type management of the reason is simple, nothing more than to operate in the rigid into flexibility, set aside room for adaptation to environmental change. However, the reality of the operators are often do this well. According to Kotosuke, Japan’s enterprises have been running on loans, did not embark on the dam-style management of the road. To build a variety of dams, first of all need to no longer rely on loans. This, Panasonic has done. However, the dam is not easy to care more difficult to dam. Fortunately, the help that the nursing dam is actually still a conceptual problem. First of all to consider how to use the dam, if not adaptable, even if the establishment of the dam, it will not change according to the amount of water in a timely manner. Second, we must clear the use of dikes, dams for the consumer service, not for their own services. Deviated from the customer-oriented, the role of the dam will be counterproductive. Also pay close attention to all kinds of information, if the water is depleted without the knowledge, or overflow pipe but turn a blind eye, the dam has lost its meaning.


Glass-operated
The essence of “glass management” is openness and transparency. This openness and transparency, based on the trust of employees on the basis. All the operating conditions, are generally clear as the glass is visible, without concealment.

 

Glass operation is not Matsushita’s thought-provoking product, nor is the result of learning logic reasoning, but business practice in the “last resort.” Fortunately, the help of the business thinking, the glass-operation is the birth of the first. When Panasonic or a few small workshops, production and sales mixed together, invention, development and manufacturing can not distinguish, and even production and life are also integrated into one. In this case, the fortunes of self-made, there is no kind of boss and the boundaries between the hired, everyone can say is a partner, so fortunate to help the business at any time to inform other people. Thus, the formation of the lucky help of the “glass” habit. His openness, to information symmetry, is his early start when the basic way of survival. With the expansion of the business and the increase of personnel, the boundaries between employers and employees became clear. The intimate acquaintanceship began to be graded, but the open and transparent “glass state” did not retreat and remained.

 

This “glass state” can continue to develop, and the formation of a business thinking, with the help of their own business experience is inseparable. Initially, afterwards, when the business slightly expanded, began to standardize, the fortunate to help it into a monthly profit and loss account, to all employees. In Matsushita, this is a habit and normal, and compared with other enterprises at the time, it is a maverick. Fortunately, the help soon found that this approach has obvious advantages in business, because other companies do not do, and some bosses themselves muddleheaded, once the big business is not clear on the overall operating conditions, do not have the basis of open and transparent. Fortunately, the help is not the same, he is thoroughly familiar with the operating conditions, public profit and loss, while summing up the contribution of each situation easily. This initiative, the positive effect is very obvious. Compared to other employees, Panasonic employees can clearly see the results of their efforts, but also can feel the boss’s sincerity and trust, which gave birth to the staff’s sense of ownership, improve staff morale.

 

The essence of the glass-based approach is honesty and mutual trust between employers and employees. Valuable, Panasonic in the fast-growing, this practice has been maintained down. Small-scale glass-based workshop is relatively simple, and medium-sized enterprises have been difficult, large companies are even more difficult. Matsushita has been able to insist on glass operation, to a large extent, thanks to the development of Panasonic is a natural growth, is to meet the needs of the market growth, there is no seedling to encourage people to expand the scale. A bit like China’s private enterprises Dafu company’s approach to the growth of desire and momentum, not from the top of the pressure, but from the bottom of the conscious. Fortunately, they also feel in practice, this approach can effectively motivate morale, to ensure that the upper and lower as one to be able to thoroughly review the business gains and losses and resolve the conflict, but also able to cultivate a high degree of autonomy of middle managers and the backbone of the work. Even if no other measures, but also very good to prevent the kind of Aguiris pointed out that “customary defense.”

 

With the expansion of the enterprise, Fortunately, the help of the glass business standardization. Such as the regular disclosure of the financial status of employees, employees regularly explain to the planning objectives of the business, trade unions and trade organizations to maintain effective communication and consultation and so on. In this regard, the fortune to help it rise to business philosophy. Said: “business operators should adopt a democratic style, not to subordinates rely on the mentality of the boss and blind obedience.Individuals should be independent spirit, in charge of independent work under the premise.Therefore, the entrepreneur is more obliged to let In short, I believe that a modern operator must do to let everyone know, can not let anyone feel to rely on the knowledge, in order to stimulate a vibrant among the colleagues in the vitality of the company. , To promote the development of the entire business.

 

Glass operation will lead the focus of attention to the staff tilt. Large enterprises, glass-style business from top to bottom as one, co-ordination will be difficult. In this regard, fortunately with the help of “spiritual lighthouse” to guide the direction of employees, enhance enterprise cohesion. We are now often concerned about the corporate culture, in the Panasonic’s approach is closely integrated with the glass business. In order to enable employees to truly integrate into the enterprise, and open and transparent business ideas in line with Panasonic’s expansion in the formation of a set of staff “education” approach. Through the determination of the spirit of the company’s tenets (ie Panasonic Spirit), singing “Panasonic Club Song”, played “Panasonic March”, so that employees with near “brainwashing” pious truly into the company. Therefore, Matsushita from the staff into the factory began to solemnly to join the club education, reading, reciting the “Matsushita”, singing “Matsushita Social Song”, learning to help the “Quotations” to visit the company history of entrepreneurship exhibition. After the formal work, each morning before the collective recitation of the spirit of Matsushita and singing songs, each month in their respective groups on the spirit of the company and corporate social responsibility of the public speech, the annual organization of a grand send products (sent to the factory Dealers) ceremony, each Panasonic people have to continue to answer “What I really want to do?” “What do I need to learn?” “I have any shortcomings?” And other issues. Through these means, so that staff autonomy and cohesion can be enhanced. Some people have doubts about this approach, Fortunately, the help replied: “Once the meeting, singing social songs, recitation of the seven spirit, is the tradition of Matsushita Electric, must follow the implementation of the implementation of things in the end once the decision must adhere to in the end, not their own lost Direction, or be confused by words and deeds of others, or will not be successful. Do business is the same, we must implement the ambition.


Need to point out that the opening process in China, Panasonic’s “corporate culture” by a number of Chinese managers of all ages, in some enterprises to adopt a similar approach has also received the corresponding results. But it should not be forgotten that Panasonic’s success is the organic integration of external ritual and connotation. And this connotation is achieved through the glass business. If you lose the connotation, just sing the social song, recite the creed, or even a manager thought a staff to learn, only the formation of superficial, does not help the staff of the company’s high degree of recognition. More importantly, the formation of this approach to Panasonic, is closely linked with the charisma of the charisma. As a result, Matsushita, despite its size, has resisted bureaucratization and, at the same time, has consciously eliminated the hierarchy and, in some sense, retained the basic structure of the family business in order to maintain the effectiveness of the glass operation. Once the charisma is not fortunate, in a highly bureaucratic or hierarchical organization, trying to build this corporate culture is likely to go the other way. Even with Panasonic itself, there are potential problems between increasing employee autonomy and increasing employees’ sense of company identity. When Matsushita’s help died, this problem gradually explicit. Matsushita can not get out of the aura of the help, which is entering the 21st century, a new topic.

 

Matsushita’s spirit, in the management of thinking will undoubtedly affect the long-term, and Matsushita’s help, belong to the 20th century. His business thought, especially the philosophy of running water contains the corporate social responsibility, the embankment-type operation contains the strategy of dealing with uncertainty, the glass-like operation of the idea of employee autonomy, in Drucker, get the theoretical interpretation and academic Of the argument. Trying to Matsushita’s operating methods intact transplant to other companies, and continued into the 21st century, is likely to be Handan toddler, but the denial of the future value of Matsushita’s business thinking, it is certainly buy.

 

Panasonic’s people-oriented management and corporate mission
Humanistic thought has a long history and a wide variety of discussions. In the business field, there are a lot of people advocate people management, Matsushita is a successful example of success. He is characterized by people-oriented and business management closely integrated as one, the nature of human nature and closely integrated into one social responsibility. In accordance with the help of the saying is that “business that people, as also in people, who are also defeated.” By answering the question, “Why do companies survive,” it is fortunate that the people-oriented management beliefs and methods with strong Japanese characteristics are brought to the limit.

 

Human nature and business operations
Panasonic is one of the characteristics of business thinking is to elaborate the subtleties of human nature, put forward to adapt to the natural human business management concept. His whole business thinking is based on the understanding of human nature and the mastery of the laws of nature. Matsushita’s help that the enterprise is “human” business, any business and management can not leave people, so business philosophy and management methods must be based on human nature as the starting point. There is no academic deduction from the “economic man” hypothesis to the “social person” hypothesis, nor from the “X theory” to “Y theory” to “super Y theory” and “Z theory” , But as a successful entrepreneurial identity, put forward the “people are the king of all things,” the people of this concept, in the development of the theory of human independence independent.

 

He believes that “mankind is the king of all things.” It conforms to the law of the birth and development of this law, and was awarded the common life with their own and common development of unlimited power and responsibility. “The so-called” king of all things ” , Is not to say that people are the master of all things in the world, can be arbitrary according to their own desires and emotions to dominate everything; but that in the relationship between people and things, people with compliance, initiative and responsibility. In other words, people must follow and comply with the laws of nature to control all things, through the production of material and spiritual to improve the common people and the common life of all things. At the same time, the human nature of the law with the initiative, which is the difference between man and animal where animals do not have the ability to think, not to discover the natural law of the generation and development, and people can use their own cognitive ability to understand this law, Their own survival, and the effective use of all things. ” It is this human ability to use all things, so that humans must assume different social responsibilities from animals.

According to this nature of human nature to conduct business management, requires operators to respect people, care for people, trust, and strive to meet the needs of people, give full play to people’s initiative, people can self-realization, self-development. It is fortunate to argue that in nature only one can conform to the laws of nature, to recognize and effectively use the laws of nature, and only one can well shoulder the responsibility of upholding the laws of nature, and the responsibility of the human being is required to be with all things in nature Survival and development of the backbone. However, in real life, not everyone can really understand and understand the nature and responsibilities of people, therefore, it gives the operator a task, business operations not only to stimulate people’s initiative, but also to give Staff of the guidance, so that employees can clear the “King of all things,” the responsibility and obligations. People to recognize their own nature, recognize their mission, to a positive attitude into society, in order to achieve their own values in society, so that the formation of the general public the power of one mind, and ultimately the “King of all things” mission , Which is everyone’s responsibility and mission.

 

Based on this understanding of the nature of human nature, Matsushita Matsushita stressed that Panasonic’s largest product is the people. Good business, should be out of the product before the talent in the manufacture of products before the first personnel training, “made man” before the “creation.” Matsushita is to cultivate people’s companies, but also cultivate talent at the same time as electrical appliances only. In order to enable Panasonic employees to recognize the nature and responsibility of human nature, the Fortunately for the Panasonic company developed a set of “spiritual law.” Matsushita’s spirit includes seven (1933 developed five, 1937 and an increase of two), namely: industry serve the country; upright; Dear sincere; struggle up; etiquette humility; adaptation assimilation; Matsushita’s program is: “a thorough understanding of the industry’s mission, to seek social improvement and progress, and then contribute to the world culture.” Matsushita’s credo is: “Only the whole staff live in harmony and work together to progress and development , All employees should be in good faith, solidarity, for the community to do. “It is important to emphasize that all these spiritual laws, in the eyes of fortune, not to nurture the company’s loyalty, but to create employee autonomy, So that employees can clearly white man.

 

Matsushita’s help on the relationship between human nature and management of this understanding, basically give up the Western-style individualism, especially liberal ideas, based on the Japanese-style collectivism. In his remarks, the traditional Japanese samurai, retainers of the heartfelt praise, reflecting his emphasis on the sense of responsibility; in his business behavior, the family cohabitation advocacy, expressed his love of collectivism; and He is very happy to act as a parent in the company, but also reflects his preference for Japanese tradition. Fortunately, the “man” in his mind is not liberal (his speech has barely used the term liberalism, but rather used democracy more and accepted liberalism only in market liberalization). He is also basically no pre-war Japan took the road of militarism tragedy carried out a profound reflection, just use the “excessive competition” to explain the causes of war. Therefore, the fortunate help on the role of American-style democracy, what is only interpreted as the foundation of prosperity, while ignoring the individuality of publicity. However, the lessons of the defeat of Japan, the transformation of the US occupation during the period, fortunately helped his twists and turns during this period, so that he would not go too far in denial of liberalism, which makes him “dominant” and “autonomy” To strike a balance. In this sense, the success of Panasonic, is it not from the defeat of the lessons come out! People advocating Matsushita to help the business model, the characteristics of his not to be missed. Especially in the construction of corporate culture, learning Panasonic “spiritual law”, the more to deal with the relationship between collectivism and personal freedom. Once there is no liberal constraints, “the king of all things” is likely to logically dominate the theory. Once the person can dominate everything, then the best person may dominate the fool, chairman and general manager can dominate the entire company. From the Panasonic said, “the operator is within the enterprise organization ‘the king'” phrase, you can see this sign. Fortunately, the help depends on his love for mankind and the kindness of the staff and fair to restrain the “king” behavior. He can not keep this balance behind, the operator is a test.


Corporate Social Responsibility
Matsushita’s help that business is like a person’s life, people need a healthy outlook on life, business is also true. Business management from the business philosophy, the correct management philosophy rooted in the correct outlook on life, social, world view on. Based on human nature and natural law and get the correct business philosophy is widely applicable. In order to seek this correct business philosophy, Kasunosuke raised some of the most basic question: why is there a business?
What is the real mission of the enterprise?
Many people think that the purpose of business is to make money, is to maximize profits. In this regard, Fortunately, the help of his unique insights. He admitted that as an operator, certainly to make business profits, this is no doubt. He does not deny the importance of corporate profits, he bluntly said: “If a business can not make money, but also what to do?”, “The purpose of business is to make money. Let it assume social responsibility is not empty talk? A wealthy person can certainly help poor people, but a person if they do not eat enough to let him go to aid refugees in Africa it possible? However, the purpose of the existence of enterprises is not just to make money, the real mission of the enterprise, is to achieve social prosperity. Making money is for enterprises to fulfill their social responsibility to create the conditions, a can not contribute to social prosperity of the enterprise, even more money, but also deviated from the right path. Katsunosuke declared: “The responsibility to contribute to the community is the first element of business.” “Reasonable profit is not only the purpose of business operators, but also the cornerstone of social prosperity.

 

Because of this, Matsushita’s help that private capital to set up the business name “public” and not surname “private.” Under the condition of market economy, the enterprise as an independent economic entity and the interest main body, has its own legitimate rights and interests and the pursue, but the enterprise is inseparable from the society. A fair, legal and stable society is the survival and development of the necessary conditions for enterprises to provide living space, in turn, companies must meet the needs of the community, to provide their own services. This relationship determines the nature of the business. In essence, enterprises are social devices, business is business rather than private affairs. This is what the company calls “society”, “club”, “company”. Therefore, the mission of the enterprise is to maximize the quality of life and level of people, to overcome poverty, contribute to the society, and the society is the most important thing. Of the prosperity and progress. Once a person to do a business, the enterprise in essence belongs to the community rather than their own. Fortunately, the help of this view, breaking the narrow view of business, the business benefits of their own pursuit of corporate social responsibility should be combined into one, given the existence of a higher level of enterprise content.

 

In this way, Matsushita Matsushita stressed that people are not based on the individual, but to the community-oriented. Corporate commitment to corporate social responsibility is the highest mission, and the pursuit of profit is the necessary means to achieve this mission. Enterprises through the profits to complete their own social mission. Based on this concept, the fortunate to help that business and society, business and the state is coexistence and common prosperity. The interests of the market economy is the driving force of human and organizational progress, but only in organizations and individuals rooted in the sense of social responsibility, can really generate positive economic activity in the driving force, so as to develop the economy and for the benefit of mankind to make Due contribution. If out of a sense of social responsibility, interest-driven will have a downward momentum, the enterprise pulled into the abyss of the disaster, so that money contributed to evil. Fortunately, he was particularly distasteful of bargaining and discount sales. In his view, the essence of the bargaining is to show that the idea of making money becomes the sole purpose of doing business, which can lead to corporate corruption.


Talent Founding
People-oriented philosophy and social responsibility, Panasonic decided to the basic management policy is the talent Founding. Fortunately, it seems that the world is composed of the world, society is composed of social, business is composed of enterprises, therefore, people are the deciding factors of all things. Without the right people, you can not achieve the mission of the enterprise. Fortunately, to help train personnel, not only have technology, but also to have operational capacity, more important than the ability to operate is the values and tenacity. In his business practice, the lucky help summed up the practice of a set of talent Founding.
Matsushita’s help in talent selection is very wise, and his choice of talent with “appropriate” to describe, not to emphasize “the best.” He often said that 100 points talent is good, but can be met without resort, very rare. Employers should be good at using 70 points of talent. This selection criteria, is fortunate to help in the early stages of business formed. When Matsushita Electric minor, it can only absorb those Mitsui, Sumitomo, Mitsubishi and other large enterprises do not want people. And it is these large companies look down on the “sub-talent”, and the fortunate to help create a Panasonic’s brilliant.
More importantly, Fortunately, the help of that 70-point talent is more enterprising. He needs people is “not mind and learn from the mind, do not stick to the rules and often new ideas of people, love the company and the company into one person, not selfish but for the sake of the people, have the ability to operate independently People, anytime, anywhere there is a dedicated person, able to properly instruct the boss who can be loyal to the people, the spirit of the company to play the important task of people. Compared with 100 points of talent, 70 points more easily reach such a requirement. If the enterprise is the top talent, these people tend to stand in a self-centered position, can not communicate well with other people and get along, can not be well integrated into their own. The 70-point talent is different, they will pay attention to their own shortcomings, will humbly accept the advice and opinions from others, will put a very even 12-point effort to complete their work, to integrate into the collective. Especially for the top talent looking up, will enable them to clear their own goals to be achieved, to stimulate their self-conscious learning motivation, and thus continue to grow to contribute to the development of enterprises. Such people are often grateful to the enterprise, thanks to the psychological will make them more trust and loyalty to the enterprise, is conducive to the unity of the entire enterprise and development.
Select 70 points there are standards on the primary and secondary talent. Fortunately, help stressed that technical capacity is indispensable in the enterprise, but the quality of talent from the point of view technology is the most important, the most important is the perseverance and enthusiasm. Common to the smart anti-clever wrong examples. People are not afraid of clumsy, afraid of trickery. Perseverance is the most basic element of success. The so-called lack of “interest”, not “like”, but the lack of perseverance. The selection of people to choose those who can say like the Japanese saying “in the stone to sit for three years” people. Also, enthusiasm ahead of talent. There are plenty of talented people, but the real success is the work of enthusiasm. “A director can not wisdom, talent, but for the enthusiasm of the work, we must always stay ahead.”
Since it is the selection of 70 points talent, then, in the use of them, we must avoid weaknesses. The so-called strengths and weaknesses, is the first focus on strengths. Fortunately, help many times to Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Wise Mitsuhide as an example to illustrate this issue. Wise show talent as much as Toyotomi Hideyoshi, however, Mitsuhide only pick Oda Nobunaga’s weaknesses, and Hideyoshi know Oda Nobunaga’s strengths, two of the success or failure of this decision. Those who only look at other people’s weaknesses, most of the failure. Encouragement, rather than accusations, is the key to employing.
In personnel training, the fortune to help highlight the values and outlook on life. Talent education should start with the mission of enterprise and business philosophy of education began, only to allow employees to fully understand and agree with the mission of the enterprise, in order to enable them to achieve this mission to sleepless nights to work. When the business philosophy and mission in the hearts of each employee to take root, together with them, you can let them in their own responsibility and authority within the scope of independent creativity. (1) understand and strongly feel the importance of personnel training; (2) have the basic spirit of respect for mankind; (3) clear education business philosophy and sense of mission; (4) educate the staff and workers of the enterprise; (4) to educate the staff and workers of the enterprise; Must be profitable; ⑤ committed to improving the working conditions and employee benefits; ⑥ let employees have a dream; ⑦ to the correct outlook on life.
Fortunately, the help that with the right values and outlook on life, but also need to enhance the inherent competitiveness of talent. In order to enable Panasonic employees to get good training, fortunately the company set up in the “Education and Training Center”, under the eight research institutes and a higher vocational schools. The main training of technical staff and technical workers; business training the main training sales staff and business management staff; overseas training center responsible for training in foreign countries, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (M & A) And the staff of the foreign trade staff; Tokyo, Nara, Utsunomiya and four members of the North Dagong training staff were responsible for training in the region’s staff; Higher Vocational Training School is responsible for training only recruit high school graduates Matsushita and Young staff. Matsushita to help the growth history of entrepreneurs in Japan, Matsushita no doubt established a monument to help. He not only created a fabulous business, but also put forward a set of universal significance of the business philosophy. From the teenage drop out of school when the apprentice began, he step by step rolling climbing, in the sea to get out of their own a unique way. Matsushita’s management thinking, with his growing experience inseparable. If there is no practice of temper, it is impossible to produce a Panasonic’s business. Although the number of successful entrepreneurs in the sea, but can be extracted from the business of the entrepreneurs are few, can be popular to praise the worship of the “sacred” level figures, only Matsushita’s well-deserved. In the contemporary Japanese industry, there are “business four holy” argument. The so-called “business four holy”, refers to the founder of Sony Akio Morita, Honda’s founder Honda Zongichiro, Kyocera’s founder Kazuo Inamori and Panasonic’s founder Matsushita. In this “four holy” among the Matsushita to help champion, known as the “God of business.” To understand the “God of business” is how to make, from his apprenticeship.


Apprentice honing
Matsushita’s (1894 ~ 1989) legendary career, began his apprenticeship journey. In November 1894, Matsushita Miyuki was born in a small mountain village in Seocao-gun, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan, and Sakamura (now the Wakayama Prefecture). Matsushita, the name comes from a large local pine tree (the pine tree has been there until 1966 by lightning, 1970 was destroyed by fire). In the shade of the pine tree, Matsushita had a happy childhood. In his birth, his family still can, with the help of the eight children in the youngest, covered with his brother and sister above, he was carefree, life full of sunshine. Excellent childhood, is an important condition of spiritual health.
However, the joy of childhood is short. Fortunately, to help five years old, his father did rice speculation business failed, his family gradually fall, even the ancestral land and houses are sold, the family moved out of the village and the old house, his father opened a clog shop to survive, has On the fourth grade of Big Brother had to drop out of school. Two years later, clogs shop closed, fortunate to help the eldest brother, brother, sister also died because of the flu, the family into a predicament. Although the family is so dilapidated, but fortunately the help is still able to go to school, we can see the family ‘s love of the care.
When Matsushita was in the fourth grade of elementary school, his father, who was working outside, sent a letter to Osaka as an apprentice. As a result, only 9 years old and has not graduated from the beginning of the small fortune, in November 1904 came to Osaka, began in Miyata brazier shop in small apprenticeship. This shop apprentice, what chores had to do. Fortunately, the main job is to help see the child and grinding brazier, he began to tasted the hardships of labor, but also feel less lonely from home.
The real apprenticeship begins at the bike shop. Matsushita Matsushita only in the brazier shop for three months, the shop closed down. Shop owner has a friend of five generations of sound Kyrgyzstan, just opened a bike shop. Kind shop owner recommended the help of the help of the shop. Here, Matsushita’s fortune for six years, laying his later in the business community to show their talents. Especially the kindness of the proprietress, the fortunate to help virtually had a huge impact. For example, once a group photo shop, but fortunately to help out of service, due to delays in the customer failed to come back on time. Photographers can not wait, and so the help of the back, the camera is over. For a never shone like a teenager, he saw the matter very heavy, even crying. Boss in order to comfort him, specifically with the help of Fortunately, to the studio to Bupai. This affair was deeply touched. Until the old age, he also this photo with the boss is very cherished, because this is his apprenticeship during the only photo, is his first camera. A seemingly insignificant little thing, in his mind laid a deep imprint. From Matsushita’s help later to write those articles on business management can be seen, the bicycle shop apprentice experience, to develop his management philosophy was later put forward the tone.


Matsushita’s father, he placed a great hope. Although the help is only a small apprentice, but his father on the one hand, out of guilt on their own bankruptcy, on the other hand out of the natural disaster man-made misfortune after the only home boy’s expectations, has been to the fortunate help ” The truth. Told him that the history of Japan’s celebrities, initially from when the servant, when the retainers began. Fortunately, the help of memories, his father often encouraged him: the past, the great man, a child in other people’s home work, hard work, so do not feel bitter, be patient … … In the fortune to help 11 years old, His sister saw his brother is too hard, more importantly, drop out of school will cause cultural deficiencies, want him to make up on the night school dropout regret. However, the apprentice is not on the evening school, because the apprentice did not work the concept of getting up from 5 am to clean up, closing at 11 pm to close the shop, the apprentice can not leave. At that time, the work of the sister savings to recruit a handyman, sister, after consulting with his mother, they want to help the application of lucky, dry and diligent during the day and night reading night school. However, his father learned that after the flatly rejected the idea. The perverse parents found that only when the apprentice will be promising, the future will be able to fortune. He asked for help not to change the ambition, even if they can not read, you can also achieve brilliant achievements. So, fortunately the help later feeling said that if there is no father to guide the road, he would not have today. Although he had lost knowledge in his schooling, he had been enlightened earlier on the other side of business practice.
In 1910, the application of electric energy to Japan has brought bright prospects. Osaka City began to open tram. Fortunately, although only 17 years old, but he saw the future of electrical. At that time he simply believed that, with the tram, the demand for bicycles will be reduced. So, he decided to change their life trajectory, join the electrical industry. There was a very interesting episode when he left the bike shop. He is a young man to the future of the bold imagination, his career in electrical appliances, and his brother-in-law to help just to set up the company shortly after the light work. However, the owner of the bike shop to help the good fortune so well, so he can not face the boss to say the reasons for leaving. So, fortunately, help to take a childish approach – secretly leave. Can imagine, the young fortunate help at this time have encountered a common contradiction in life. His future fantasies and beliefs, to support their own pursuit; and trust and care for the boss, and make it difficult for him to say goodbye. It is this vision of the future of the firm belief and can not let go of the rich emotion, became the main theme of the cause of Panasonic.


Matsushita, who left the bike shop, was not able to go to the lights company immediately. As a result, he began to work in the brother-in-law to do odd jobs in cement factories, dry labor intensity from the very large handling of cement. This three months, he had never suffered before the heavy physical labor training, so that his hard life with unforgettable feelings. Three months later, he was recruited into the electric light company, becoming an indoor wiring electrician assistant. Fortunately, before the help of the training, so that he will soon stand out in this line of business. Three months later, he was promoted to a foreman by an assistant. His later memories of this is not without pride, stressed that this promotion is a special case. Japan is a hierarchical country, the foreman and the assistant between the distance, no less than the owner and servant. For example, finished work, the assistant immediately to the foreman to wash hands, even the foreman’s clogs bad, but also to the assistant to repair. Japan, this unique social hierarchy, to Matsushita’s help to lay a deep ideological imprint. From being a drinker of four cement porters, to the arrogance of the electrician foreman, so that the help of both from the Japanese business to see the characteristics, but also see the implication of the problem. By the age of 24, he had been promoted to the company’s inspectors, inspecting more than a dozen workplaces a day. But he was the envy of others by the monitoring work is not much enthusiasm, but on their own work is very important. Their installation of the beach lights, theaters in the bright lighting, to the fortunate help to bring a strong sense of satisfaction. This time, he was married with the well planting wild, and began to consider the independent business.
Socket started
In the light of the company’s work, but fortunately helped invented a new lamp socket. With his intuition, he is convinced that this socket has a wide range of uses, but was the boss of the negative. As a result, the young and fit of the fortunate help resigned, determined to play a new world. It is this decision, so that he did not stay in the small invention level, but soon entered the business combat.
Matsushita’s luck to help the “sea” is entirely on the faith of this small invention. He was on hand less than 100 yuan of savings, and single-handedly. He borrowed 100 yuan from his former colleague ‘s friend, and brought his brother – in – law to a young man who had a small career in his own house (four and a half tatami and two in width) Tatami) opened a small workshop, began to practice their dreams.

 

All beginnings are hard. Fortunately, with the aid of lamp socket design, but no actual manufacturing. At the beginning, he even lamp shell raw material is not clear, after much advice to finally understand the lamp of the production method, with 4 months time, finally produced the product. Without working capital, he was able to send things to pawn shops.
However, no matter how good the invention, no market recognition is no good. Out of the product, how to sell out, to help the fortunate on the solid lesson. They took their own lamp socket, to the various electrical stores to sell, very few stores optimistic about this new product, racking their brains, traveled to Osaka’s shops, only sold more than 100, income 10 yuan. The first battle setback, so that the help of the business to understand the difficulties. He had to let others make a living, a small workshop only he and the well-planting old man and two.
There is always a way out. While Matsushita Matsushita helpless, he received a production base of the fan base orders, and business commitments as long as the follow-up orders will be done well. Matsushita and well planting two, did not start out without a black out to do this base. This time finally succeeded, a month’s time, they completed the first order, earn more than 80 yuan profit. Since then, continue to do this electric fan base, so that Panasonic’s business has slowly developed. It is this experience, to the fortunate help later business ideas have a great impact. The first business of his debut, so he understood the market recognition and the importance of customer satisfaction. Any invention, even if the inventor how I worked hard, the market and the user does not buy it, it means no way out. However, the efforts of the lamp socket is not white. No outlet of the effort, it is impossible to bring the fan base orders. The fan base of the proceeds, but also revitalize the lamp socket, so that the invention is also really put into production and gradually extended to the market.


After the foothold, Matsushita Matsushita began planning “in the real electrical equipment research and production,” by the bedroom and workshop is not a permanent solution. Thus, in 1918 the fortunately helped in Osaka City rented a house, founded the Matsushita Electric Appliances Manufacturing. Later, the world-famous “Panasonic products”, set sail from here.
The production of the lamp socket has accumulated its own “pot of gold”, the performance of steady development. Pouring the luck of the help of the lamp socket, with its quality to win, and finally got the market recognition. Osaka, a shop called Yoshida, but also to 3,000 yuan deposit to the exclusive agent of the product sales. At the same time, the product also hit the Tokyo market.
In Tokyo, Fortunately, the help and has withstood a new test, the test comes from the business competition. When Panasonic’s lamp socket began to sell in Tokyo, but met the Tokyo store boycott. Peer is the enemy, the face of the quality of Panasonic’s lamp socket, Tokyo stores have taken unfair means of competition, they keep the prices down sale, trying to strength is not strong Panasonic products out of the market. Under the pressure of the Tokyo store, Osaka Yoshida store lifted the general agent contract. Employees increased, liabilities increased, capacity expanded, and sales were problematic. For any business, this is a headache. Especially in Tokyo, the original is Yoshida shop single-handedly distributor, Panasonic has never been with the Tokyo business dealings. In this regard, Fortunately, the decision to help themselves to Tokyo, holding a map, a family business to talk about. In order to save money and save time, take the night train to Tokyo, a day, and then take the night train to return to Osaka. Finally, fortunately helped through the difficulties. From this point on, he had his own view of the middle of the competition. He later stressed that the quality of competition and service to win, very much hate dumping and exclusion of peer unfair competition means, are related to this experience.
To 1922, Panasonic has a balance of 4500 yuan, with a relatively solid operating foundation, has also been recognized by the community. At this time, fortunately, help to open a boat downwind, spent 7,000 yuan to build new plants. With the expansion of business, Fortunately, the beginning of the development of new products, which is to make Panasonic’s reputation bike lights. In 1923, the fortunately with the help of new dry battery lamp to replace the past kerosene lamp, can be manufactured using 30 to 50 hours of warhead-type bicycle lights. The price is only 30 a few money, and an hour with a candle to two money. Panasonic convinced that the lights can be popular, but the wholesalers are not optimistic. In order to promote, he took an unprecedented approach to the business, the product parked in a bicycle shop, driving lights show, to see in the end how long can be bright, attracting a large number of buyers. In this way, the first end of the customer needs, and then initiated by the bike shop orders, due to good sales, wholesalers, in turn, to find Panasonic orders. The original sales order is “manufacturer → wholesaler → retailer → customer”, and now it becomes “customer → retailer → wholesaler → manufacturer”. As a result, the new mode of operation was born.


Soon, Panasonic has produced a multi-purpose square battery dry lamp. This light is a sign of Panasonic, from the beginning, Panasonic first used the National trademark (the trademark has been in use, however, in the course of exports of Panasonic products, National because of its “national” meaning, many countries refused to register Panasonic has also created the Panasonic brand for foreign countries, and by 2004 Panasonic will use Panasonic for its unified brand and export market. The square light of the publicity, Panasonic took the initiative to demonstrate the kind of way. He adopted the approach is free to the market to provide 10,000 trial samples. Since the battery was supplied by Tokyo-based Okada Battery Corp., Mr. Matsushita visited Okada and asked him to provide 10,000 batteries for free. He Okada explained the situation, to ensure that a year to sell 200,000 batteries. If sales of less than 200,000, by Panasonic to pay the cost of 10,000 batteries. To the year-end inventory, the annual sales of 470,000. To this end, Okada made a special trip to Osaka, wearing a very dignified badge with the kimono, in the form of gifts sent the original 10,000 battery deposit and thanks. Okada eyes, Panasonic’s move, creating a new era of battery distribution history.
With the expansion of the Panasonic business, the famous Japanese bank Sumitomo Bank has a surname ITO salesperson eye unique, take the initiative to come to Panasonic service. In this regard, Fortunately, help the beginning of a refusal attitude. Because Panasonic has been dealing with the national fifteenth bank. Bank 15 is one of the five major banks in Japan, with the Panasonic very harmonious cooperation, so fortunate help do not want to do business with other banks. However, ito to more than a dozen times, the enthusiasm of the help of the help is difficult to shirk. Fortunately, the help of the proposed an unprecedented, so that all the prerequisite surprise. He asked Sumitomo Bank first agreed, in any case you can always let Matsushita unconditional loan of 20,000 yuan. The other is very difficult at first, after asking the upper, Sumitomo headquarters, the loan practice is to be secured, you can use Panasonic’s factory equipment and real estate mortgage as a loan condition. Fortunately, the help said in the negotiations, to mortgage as a condition, indicating that there is no trust in Panasonic. And Panasonic believes that their reputation is far more important than the collateral. Sumitomo Bank finally agreed to this premise. In 1926 reached an agreement. No one thought, it is this agreement, so Matsushita somewhere to be a god to help.


In 1927, the outbreak of bank crisis in Japan, 15 banks began to stop payment. At this time, the fortunate help to think of the previous agreement with Sumitomo, and in the financial industry has occurred in the run and the case of closure, Sumitomo made it clear that the original agreement is valid, Panasonic can always unconditionally loans from Sumitomo. The beginning, Matsushita to the banking business to Sumitomo. In the financial crisis, Panasonic and Sumitomo’s credibility has withstood the test.
The end of 1929, the economic situation is more difficult. Panasonic’s product sales decreased by half, inventory soared. Almost all businesses to consider is not to build new plants, but to build warehouses. In this situation, most companies began layoffs. Japanese employees the best bell spinning company, also began to lower wages. Fortunately, at the time of illness, the company’s top to discuss with him layoffs. Fortunately, after careful consideration, the proposed program: a workers do not cut, wages are not reduced, but the output halved, and employees to cancel the vacation, all mobilized in sales, digest inventory. Spent two months, inventory digestion is completed, production returned to normal. After this incident, Matsushita test their own workforce, one from top to bottom as one, go all out of the atmosphere gradually formed.
Products, markets, business networks, human resources and business reputation are available, and Panasonic to sail the voyage of the time.
Re-start and take-off
In 1932, Matsushita’s business management to have their own insights, put forward the famous “water philosophy.” Although Matsushita has 14 years of development, but to this moment, the fortune to help really understand the historical position of the enterprise. In order to bear in mind this moment, to achieve the mission of the enterprise, he decided to May 5, 1932 for the Matsushita company’s business anniversary. More surprisingly, he set a 250-year goal for Matsushita, with a 25-year cycle in 10 phases.
However, the concept of suddenly see the light and reality in the difficult step in sharp contrast. The world economic crisis of the 1930s brought Japan into the period of economic control in which the government intervened vigorously. Matsushita’s business has just been picking up, was involved in the Japanese launched a war of aggression. During World War II, Panasonic companies at the request of the Government, to stop the production of civilian products and began to engage in military production, first for the military production of 200 tons of wood, and later for the military production of wooden aircraft. Shipbuilding has just entered the scale, the aircraft just to produce samples, Japan accepted the Potsdam announcement unconditional surrender, entered the United States occupation period. Defeated not only the Japanese military arrears of large sums of money a Panasonic, but also the Panasonic company by the US occupation authorities as a check object. Matsushita was designated as the “chaebol”, but fortunately I also included in the military responsibility for the manufacture of military duty must be removed from the list of duties. After several years of negotiations, especially the Panasonic company’s union launched a signature campaign, petition to the occupation authorities, asked the help of fortune to stay, only to make Panasonic company half-dead to survive.
The inclusion of the zaibatsu means that the freezing of assets, the removal of their posts and the retention of their assets are a serious impediment to the conduct of business activities. Therefore, the Panasonic company in the post-war five years, production stagnation, debt, almost to the brink of bankruptcy. In this case, the fortunate help he did not want to do but had to do – a large area of layoffs, the company reduced from 1.5 million to 3,500 people.
In 1950, with the reconstruction of Japan after the war, Panasonic began to revive. In order to make Matsushita no longer appear biased, but fortunately the special trip to the United States study tour. Do not look do not know, a look surprised. The United States developed and rich to make the help of feeling extremely. For example, the US production of radio GE 24 US dollars, while the workers on the 12 US dollars of wages. Matsushita’s radio 9000 yen, while the workers monthly wage of 6,000 yen. Americans can buy a two-day salary of a radio, the Japanese need one and a half months of wages. A New York City’s electricity consumption, the equivalent of the entire Japan’s electricity consumption. In the United States opened the horizon, so fortunately from the United States strongly praised the democracy. From the United States a return, Fortunately, help began to host the Netherlands and Philips cooperation, to introduce technology to drive Panasonic’s new take-off.
In the introduction and joint venture with Philips negotiations, Philips proposed payment by Panasonic 6% of the technical guidance fee. Fortunately, that the introduction of technology to pay the technical guidance fee Yes, but the new company is a joint venture nature of the two sides, with technical Philips party to obtain technical guidance fees, then engaged in the operation of the Panasonic party should obtain operating guidance fees. Finally, the two sides reached an agreement in 1952, Philips received 4.5% of the technical guidance fee, Panasonic received 3% of the operating guidance fee. This is a precedent in business, Panasonic has also won the respect of Philips, more importantly, thus establishing a management and technical innovation and the concept of both.
In the business value creation at the same time, Panasonic does not negate the role of technology. Fortunately, help to emphasize, to really lead the technology, must have their own research and original. This is not just the original product, but also the production skills and machine tools. Thus, in 1953, Panasonic set up the Central Research Institute, set up a special machinery factory, for their production line to develop the latest machinery and equipment.


After 1956, Panasonic’s business has entered a rapid development stage. Fortunately, the plan was to develop a five-year turnover of four times, from 20 billion to 80 billion (later actually reached 100 billion). After 1955, Matsushita’s export trade grew rapidly. In 1961, with the development of Matsushita, the 66-year-old announced his resignation as president of the president (General Manager), was appointed president (chairman), the successful completion of the transfer of the right to operate.
Fortunately, despite the surrender of the right to operate, but did not go to the company. 3 years later (1964) Panasonic’s business encountered difficulties, the Japanese companies clearly demonstrated overcapacity, many companies have bankruptcy, Panasonic also appeared in the backlog and deficit. At this time, fortunately the help again, presided over the Panasonic agents and marketers of the association. Then he found that more than 200 Panasonic vendors, there are more than 170 at a loss, the association will almost become a complaint. Fortunately, he sincerely apologized to participants and explored ways to improve management after mutual understanding. Since then, he despite the 69-year-old, a temporary replacement for the sales department in charge of the business minister Yasuharu Yasukuni, stand to the front line of sales, presided over the Panasonic sales operations overall reform. The reform, the user-oriented service ideas have been truly implemented, Panasonic Corporation once again reached the forefront of Japan’s economic take-off.
In 1967, Japan liberalized its capital with the improvement of its operations and the commitment of Japan to the World Trade Organization (GATT). In the face of this situation, Fortunately, Matsushita’s new short-term goal: to eliminate waste, to create prosperity, renewed ideas, re-start five years of operating efficiency and wages over Europe, to catch up with the United States. To 1971, Matsushita’s wages really achieved a “super-Europe to catch the United States” expectations.


Committed to social welfareIn 1968, Panasonic Corporation held its 50th anniversary celebration. Since then, Panasonic companies doing business at the same time, a conscious commitment to the direction of social responsibility to develop. Under the auspices of the Fortunately, the establishment of the Meiji Restoration Chester to commemorate the theme of the contents of the Lingshan significant Chang, Matsushita also for the “Children’s Traffic Accident Prevention Fund” to donate 5 billion (15 years to pay). Aiming at the unbalanced development of Japan, Matsushita has adopted a special factory layout measure, which is to set up factories in underdeveloped areas with underdeveloped population and greatly reduced population. Although setting up factories in underdeveloped areas (such as Kagoshima) will increase business costs, it will lead to local economic and social development. In 1971, Yukisuke was the director of the Flying Bird Conservation Foundation (a famous archaeological culture of Nara, Japan, about the equivalent of China’s Sui Dynasty, Japan’s foundation for the foundation), dedicated to the preservation and preservation of historical heritage. The Inheritance of Japanese Spirit.

 

In 1973, the 80-year-old Matsushita’s decision to resign, the post of president, just as a consultant. But he still did not stop thinking and social activities, on the contrary, he is more concerned about social affairs, but also have more thinking about business management. In his resignation at the same time, for the “social welfare fund” donated $ 5 billion. In 1979, he visited China and proposed a joint venture between China and Japan to establish the idea of electronic enterprises. In 1980, the help of the establishment of the “Matsushita politics and economics school”, is committed to training for the future of new talent. In 1983, he was also president of the International Science and Technology Consortium and President of the 21st Century Association. In 1988, Fortunately, help to the International Science and Technology Foundation donated Matsushita Electric Co., Ltd. shares of 10 million shares. A great deal of donation, charity, and charity activities cost the old man most of his time and money; his thinking about business, state management, and social development became the subject of his writings. April 27, 1989, Matsushita’s help died.
Panasonic’s fortune to help the story, has been the world’s attention. In September 1958, Time magazine published the introduction of the inventor Matsushita Shokosuke, stressing that he not only conducts business, but also conducts research in the spiritual and social fields, observing the world with a different vision than ordinary businessmen. In February 1962, Matsushita Matsushita became the cover of Time magazine. The following year, the couple took part in the 40th anniversary celebration of “Time”. In 1964, Lifestyle magazine reported on Fortune. These magazines, in particular, emphasize the fortunate thinker, the humanitarian role, that he is both a car king Ford and pastor writer Horatio Alger (1932-1899, he wrote a large number of poor little boy to become a big spirits of inspirational small Brochures, sales of 20 million) in a character.
In Japan, Matsushita Matsushita was honored as the leader of the household appliances industry, his life won numerous honors, he has access to Japan’s five honors (Blue Shoubao chapter, second-class sun light medal, first prize Ruibao Medal, Medal, first-class sunflower big medal), access to the Netherlands, Brazil, Belgium, Malaysia, Spain and other countries of the honors or title. As a drop-in student who had only been a fourth-grader, he worked tirelessly (mostly by dictation) and wrote a number of plain, philosophical essays. Taipei’s celebrity publishing company published the “Matsushita Yoshisuke Management Collection” as many as 25 volumes (including two volumes of interviews, two volumes of scholar comments). Because of his business in the road of continuous discussion, in 1965, Matsushita Miyazaki won the honorary title of Dr. Waseda University in 1986, received the honorary doctorate of the University of Maryland.


With the eyes of the laity, Matsushita’s fortune to help both fame and fortune, longevity and co-existence; with the businessman’s vision, his career is developed, the company flourished; with literati, he achieved Lide, Liyan, meritorious three immortal. Successful entrepreneurs such as river crucian carp, and such as the Matsushita to help enter the history of entrepreneurship management thinking is one of the few. Despite the death of the Fortunately, Panasonic’s business has produced a variety of problems, but it can not erase the Matsushita’s achievements and ideological contributions. Just as Ford was overtaken by General Motors, Henry Ford was still remembered that General Motors was in bankruptcy, while Alfred Sloan was so famous that whatever happened to Matsushita’s company, Of practice and thinking, gave management left a heavy and heavy picture, the name go down in history.
Looking back on the achievements of Matsushita’s fortune
Matsushita’s help is a business enterprise of a different number, and only Japan can give birth to the exception.
To see Matsushita’s business philosophy, you will feel, traditional and trendy, the East and the West, conservative and innovative, in his wonderful blend. In other places where things are likely to conflict, but fortunately the help of the body is so harmonious.
For the Chinese, the elderly to see Matsushita’s article, there may be a kind of intimacy. A little literary and historical basis, will feel lucky to help the business of the Road, obviously is the Chinese ancient books “University” of the commercial modern version. The so-called corporate values and so on, not that “the University of Road, in the Ming and Germany, in the people, at the end of perfection” it? The so-called management of the Road, is “know only then there is set, and then be able to static, static and then to safety, security and then to consider, and then have to be able to get things in the end, things are beginning, know by successively, “? The so-called use of the Road, not that “lattice knowledge, meaning sincere heart, self-cultivation home, world peace” it? But the 80 later said, may Matsushita’s help is not so much appeal, those shallow and slightly repetitive preaching popular, it seems that with the “Westward Journey” in the Tang Seng almost.
Scholars who have been brainwashed by the Western management doctrine may find the nagging of Matsushita not much academic value. However, if you admire Drucker, when you see Drucker’s emphasis on the spirit of the company, the contents of the demonstration of corporate social responsibility, you will find that Drucker’s argument, and fortunate thinking is exactly the same. Drucker stressed that the spirit of the company is the company’s survival and development of the basic support, it affects the corporate culture, but also affect major policies. The company’s core philosophy, business philosophy, leadership, employment mechanism, etc., and even all the company’s code of conduct, are subject to the spirit of the company. And this spirit comes from the company’s core values. In particular, Drucker’s argument that companies must make money while making money is an argument for fulfilling social responsibility is almost along the lines of Katsunosuke. The difference is that Drucker is a rational argument, the help of the flash is a spark of wisdom, we can see that the Matsushita is not a good reputation to help.
Matsushita’s personal experience, a great impact on his thinking. A child of the apprentice temper, so he developed the basic quality of the businessman. Experienced drowning, car crash and other escape the test, experienced the torture of tuberculosis, so he suffered a variety of “days will be down to the people of Sri Lanka,” the tribulation, which sprouted leaders . With the help of the fortune of the cause of a step by step to success, he was convinced that God has given him to save the Kansai business community, to save Japan, and even save the world’s mission. Before and after World War II, he was almost the leader of the Kansai business community in Japan. With the rise of Japan, he will shift their focus of thinking to revitalize Japan, to contribute to the world. All this is related to the conflict between Kansai and Kanto in Japan.
Japanese companies, there has been Kansai and Kanto struggle. Osaka is a commercial city of Kansai, Tokyo is a new city of Kanto. In the eyes of Osaka, the Kanto are upstart; in the eyes of the Tokyo people, Kansai is all soil old hat. Kansai proud of history, the Kanto trendy and arrogant. The two electrical standards are not the same, has been competing with each other to fight you a high I am low. In the Sony BATA and Panasonic VHS video format battle, although the high-sounding Matsushita stressed that this is out of customer needs, but no one can guarantee that there is no Kanto and Kansai factors. Matsushita’s success did not stop at the level of a successful businessman, but to become a Japanese business philosophy leader, with the revival of Kansai business leadership position of the secret efforts are not unrelated. Of course, the Japanese character and temper, so that Jiao Jin will not hang in the face, but will not resort to writing.
It is this kind of environment, so that Matsushita is not satisfied with just being a successful entrepreneur, he achieved success in the cause, almost all the energy on the philosophical thinking above, so that he in the history of management won the thinker status. Kansai merchants, disdain in the Keynes or Galbraith there to seek difficult theoretical support, even Adam Smith is not mentioned, but to use their own performance to speak. But fortunately to help a soft Kansai cavity, straightforward, plain, plain but philosophical quotations body, did not read the number of books have achieved unprecedented success of the strong capital, making him the most appropriate Japanese business thought spokesperson.
As for the Panasonic company development process used in the business model, such as division system, life-long employment system, the annual power sequence system, although also widely respected by the industry, but the originality is not strong. What is truly valuable is the constant exploration of corporate mission and the extension to political and social research. From the management point of view, in a certain sense, “PHP” may be greater than the contribution of Matsushita Electric.
After World War II setbacks, reflection on the responsibility of war and the pursuit of peace, so Matsushita’s help in the post-war period the most difficult began PHP (PeaceandHappinessthroughProsperity) research. In 1946, Matsushita’s business is still in the battered situation, the fortunate to support the establishment of the PHP Institute, and put forward the “democracy is the prosperity of the” point of view, to discuss corporate social responsibility. In 1952, he set up a new political economy study will discuss the Japanese political system and social development. Fortunately, I have also helped in this study will be made in Japan from the industrial founding, trade founding countries to travel to the founding of the idea. After his resignation from Matsushita, he began to pay more attention to PHP research and extended his vision from the company to the state. In 1963, he published in the International Business Science Committee “my business philosophy” speech, that the state and enterprises, must have a suitable business philosophy. For Japan’s post-war development, fortunate to have his unique view. In the 1960s, a lot of people talked about the rapid rise of Japan in the postwar period, but fortunately, Japan’s postwar recovery depends on external forces. If it does not develop its international competitiveness and does not inspire national spirit, Japan will develop In the face of crisis. These thoughts, so Matsushita’s help to win the attention of Japan and the world.
The core of the “PHP” program is peace and happiness through prosperity. Matsushita’s hope that through this study, fundamentally correct the social bad situation, based on from the human nature, from the perspective of honesty and integrity to think about the proper form of social systems to promote the common prosperity of mankind to the road. In 1946, PHP magazine officially launched. Since then, the magazine has become the Matsushita’s speech to support the ideological position. PHP Institute’s research topics varied, as long as the content of social development is all-encompassing, shortly after the war just started PHP research, the fortunate to help PHP on the initial stage of research summarized as ten areas, including: Life, researching human intellect, emotion and will, to promote the correct understanding of democracy, to study the problems of labor conflict and cooperation, to study how to reduce waste to promote prosperity, to study how to reduce the administrative cost of administration and to improve administration How to realize the reasonable and fair tax burden, research on industrial structure, division of labor and economic policy, how to give full play to the role of workers, how to reform the education and training of personnel. It is this widespread concern, so that the idea of fortune to help the expansion and deepening.
Fortunately, however, stressed that PHP research must not become a study in the ivory tower, but to put into practice. He said: “In the Institute, the pioneers who explain the laws of nature as a guide to the general adoption of the common wisdom of the general public, and then learn from all the knowledge of modern commentaries, the so-called world of the But this study is ultimately for the purpose of the implementation can not be satisfied with the results of a simple summary of induction. “Fortunately, the wisdom of the help is precisely here, his thoughts eventually to the right Thinking of the future of mankind as a whole, to 1972 published “thinking of mankind” as a symbol of his thinking once again sublimation. However, he always stressed that he is a practitioner.

We have to grasp the idea of Matsushita’s help, we must examine his practice. However, if only to see his specific practice, and turn a blind eye to his thinking, it will flow in the technical learning and even imitation. Social song quotations and the like, in the hands of Matsushita’s help, is a measure of success, out of his ideological content, it may become self-defeating East copycat. As a management thinker started in the industry, Matsushita Matsushita in the management practice and management thinking on the unity made a valuable exploration, to a certain extent, correcting the management of the shortcomings of the book, return to practice the early tradition of true knowledge, To this tradition into the future of the new content. Matsushita’s song, life-long employment, and so on, are a sort of pose, and Matsushita’s true contribution is his excellent insight into the prosperity and development of human society.[:]

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