蓝血人网|企业与企业家研究网

新闻集团默多克的创业历程

[:zh]1931年3月11日,默多克出生在澳大利亚墨尔本以南30公里处阿德莱德的一个农场里,他在4个孩子中排行老二,也是全家唯一的男孩。这是一个传统的基督教家庭,从欧洲移民澳洲后,他们过上了比较富有的殖民生活。默多克就是在传统的欧式教育和开放的移民生活环境中成长起来的。
默多克于1943年至1945年入伍服役。在美国军队中,他担任射击教官。第二次世界大战结束后他复员回到自己的家乡——堪萨斯市。    1949年,默多克来到英国,就读于牛津大学的伍斯特学院,开始了正规的文科学习。在他宿舍的窗台上,摆着他崇敬的伟人列宁的胸像。默多克阅读了几百成功人物的传记。这大量的传记,使他得到了丰富的知识和推动他在事业上迈步前进的巨大力量。默多克热衷于当时风起云涌的政治运动,对赌博也很有兴趣。在同学和朋友眼中,他是那样地视野开阔,那样地雄心勃勃。
1952年秋,默多克的父亲病故,年仅21岁的他只身回到澳大利亚,开始了承担家庭事业的重任。虽然默多克家族是依靠农场致富的,但默多克的父亲基恩·默多克却是一位成功的报人。基恩·默多克从通讯员、记者干起,后来拥有了阿德莱德的两份主要报纸——《新闻报》和《星期日邮报》。默多克在澳大利亚内陆的穷乡僻壤开始了自己的事业。


默多克在1956年收购了《帕斯星期日周刊》,4年后又买下了《悉尼每日镜报》和《悉尼日报》。1964年,默多克创办了全国性的大报《澳大利亚人报》。1969年,默多克杀出澳大利亚,登陆英伦。当年,他成功地收购了《世界新闻周刊》和《太阳报》。这本是两份已经没落的垃圾报刊,但经默多克接手经营,凭借着耸人听闻的标题,形形色色的名人隐私以及无奇不有的奇闻轶事,神奇般地走红,没多久读者就增加到了400万人,成了全世界街头小报的登峰造极的偶像和模仿对象。
1973年,默多克又跨过了大西洋。他在这一年把美国的《圣安东尼新闻》和《星报》弄到手。1976年2月,他先后收购了《纽约邮报》和拥有《纽约》、《乡村之声》、《新西方》等周刊的纽约杂志公司。
默多克真正名扬世界,还是在1981年,他看准了时机购买了象征着大不列颠的体面和尊严的、有着200年历史的《泰晤士报》。说来也不能不佩服默多克地超乎常人的才能,他总是能十分精确的判断出大有发展前途的报纸,并果断地据为己有,然后大把赚钱。1985年,默多克买下了20世纪福克斯电影公司。可他看中的不是电影公司,而是该公司下属的福克斯电视台。默多克用了一年的时间,把这家名不见经传的小型独立电视台改造成了一个结构合理的电视网,从此这家电视台就成了一座宝藏。福克斯电视网所拥有的会员数从最初的12家电视台发展到188家,与美国老牌电视业巨头美国广播公司、哥伦比亚广播公司和全国广播公司并肩而立。不久,他又购买了即将破产的英国收费电视台——天空电视台,然后以他的魔力让它起死回生,如今,英国天空电视台成了欧洲的电视节目发射中心之一。1993年,为了打入中国市场,默多克购买了香港卫星电视网,香港卫星电视台通过其技术上的优势在亚洲电视淘金中尽占先机,为默多克的电视节目和影视产品赢得了全世界近一半的观众。


经过40多年的奋斗,默多克成了当今世界最庞大的传媒帝国之一的领导者,他把自己塑造成了现代传媒业泰斗的化身。默多克是第一批意识到现代传媒业成功的秘诀在于同时控制内容和发行的佼佼者之一。默多克的传媒王国覆盖全球约1/3的人口。在美国,默多克拥有第四大电视网(福克斯电视网),在好莱坞拥有电影制片厂;在拉美,默多克与三家电视台合作,通过卫星播送150套节目;在欧洲,默多克有天空电视台;在印度有EETV;在中国3500万个家庭可以通过卫星收看到默多克的电视节目;在英国,40%的报纸都属于默多克的新闻集团;在默多克王国的发祥地澳大利亚,默多克的新闻集团拥有当地2/3的报纸,还有商业电视台和有线电视等等。实际上,在这个信息社会中,默多克所操纵的各式各样的媒体正成为人们接触外部的耳目,几乎已形成了信息垄断。毫不夸张地讲,我们每天读的报纸、看的电视、欣赏的小说甚至喜爱的球队里,都有这个其貌不扬的澳大利亚人的影子。    英国《观察家报星期刊》最近的一个调查显示,传媒和商业巨头已经取代英国传统名流,成为对英国人日常生活影响力最大的人物。调查显示,当今最能左右英国人的300个人中,排在榜首的是英国前首相布莱尔、传媒大亨默多克和微软公司主席盖茨。

1999年7月2日,默多克在伦敦宣布其属下的新闻集团正式加入有线革命,转型为国际网络公司。他指出,报纸印刷年代就要结束。默多克强调,未来的世界不再是以大欺小,而是以快击慢。1999年4月,新闻集团开始策略性地投资互联网、数码电视与无线通讯产业。进入2000年后,默多克又在尝试和YAHOO合作,并和诺基亚讨论在无线网络发展方面的合作。而旗下的子公司更是已建立了多家新闻、健康医疗和电子商务网站。其实,默多克早就洞察了网络的未来。早在1998年,他就斥资把自己在香港有线电视有限公司的股份从48%提高到了100%。对于互联网,默多克有一句名言:我不了解互联网而且永远也不会懂。不过你不必了解互联网,只要懂得如何利用它就好!这的确是句大实话。

在很多人眼中,默多克不能算是报人,只能算是报业投机商。默多克是胆量、谋略与勤奋的神妙结合。默多克说:在买报和卖报中,我学会了办报。与那些传统意义上的报人的区别,正是默多克成功并不断发展的原因,他不会拘泥于已有报纸的本身,而是时刻盯着下一个目标。正如默多克所总结的办报纸的一条经验:要时刻注意新技术的端倪,向新技术投资。


默多克虽然已是富可敌国,但仍然像个澳大利亚拓荒者一样起早贪黑。每天5点半起床,喝点胡萝卜汁,游一会儿泳,7点一到准时开始工作,一直到晚上9点。他的助手随时可能接到他的电话:我是默多克。无论是头版的新闻、各种照片,还是广告的编排,他无不亲自过问。默多克只用6名助手管理他在全世界的4万员工,而这6个人也不过是绝对服从的执行者。默多克坚信发展事业的唯一办法是自己亲自管理。很长时间,他的财务管理仅停留在卖热狗小贩的水平,账目简单得像结绳记事时代的产物。
默多克喜欢通过兼并不断扩展其王国的疆界,但并不胡乱拿钱打水漂。他总是在看好之后才出手。对此,他有自己独到的见解:动手最快并不意味着就一定成功。这似乎与当前网络业流行的法则有些矛盾。但默多克不是一个喜欢泡沫的人,他像澳大利亚最淳朴的农民一样要求实实在在的成就。对于兼并和业务拓展,他一旦看好,必定是该出手时就出手,一掷千金毫不含糊。这时,他的理论又来了个180度的转变——强不如快。    默多克无疑是风云人物。1998年,由他控股的20世纪福克斯公司推出的电影巨作《泰坦尼克》风靡全球,给他赚了20亿美金;世界杯之后他斥资10。2亿美金企图收购曼联队;克林顿总统闹出绯闻后,他又要出资300万美元购买莱温斯基的风流史……传媒大王默多克不断地制造着当今世界的热点和卖点,同时他本人也成为传媒追逐的对象。狂人默多克以独特的扩张和避税手段创造着超级利润。
4月17日,澳大利亚股市暴跌,究其原因,澳大利亚传媒大亨默多克身患癌症。正如分析家所称:癌症与默多克的名字一同出现足以令股市暴跌。真可谓,一人患病,澳洲震动。
默多克究竟何许人也?其实,就算你不知道默多克,那你也一定知道属于他的那些大名鼎鼎的媒体和球队。比如,20世纪福克斯电影公司、美国福克斯电视网、洛杉矶道奇队等等。69岁的默多克是全球百大富豪排行榜的常客,总资产达72亿美元。他建立的传媒王国已覆盖了世界3/4以上的人口。
今天的默多克控制着世界上很多主流媒体,但他的传媒王国却是从澳大利亚的一家山区小报《阿德莱德日报》发展起来的。[:en]March 11, 1931, Murdoch was born in Melbourne, Australia, 30 kilometers south of a farm in Adelaide, he ranked second in the four children, is the only family boy. This is a traditional Christian family, immigrants from Europe after Australia, they lived a relatively rich colonial life. Murdoch is in the traditional European education and open immigrant living environment to grow up.


Murdoch joined the army from 1943 to 1945. In the United States Army, he served as a firing instructor. After the Second World War he demobilized back to his hometown – Kansas City. In 1949, Murdoch came to the UK, studying at the University of Oxford, Worcester College, began formal liberal arts study. On the windowsill of his dormitory, he had a bust of the great Lenin whom he revered. Murdoch read the biographies of hundreds of successful people. This large number of biographies, so he got a wealth of knowledge and to promote his career in the great power forward. Murdoch was keen on the political campaign that was taking place at the time and was interested in gambling. In the eyes of students and friends, he is so open-minded, as ambitious.


The autumn of 1952, Murdoch’s father died, only 21 years old, he returned to Australia alone, began to assume the heavy responsibility of family business. Although the Murdoch family is dependent on the farm to get rich, but Murdoch’s father Kean Murdoch is a successful newspaper. Keane Murdoch from the correspondent, journalists, and later owned Adelaide’s two major newspapers – “News” and “Sunday Post”. Murdoch began his career in the backcountry of the Australian inland.


Murdoch bought Perth Sunday in 1956 and bought the Sydney Daily Mirror and the Sydney Daily four years later. In 1964, Murdoch founded the national newspaper “The Australian”. In 1969, Murdoch shot out of Australia, landing in England. That year, he successfully acquired the “World News Weekly” and “The Sun”. This is the two have been declining garbage newspapers, but Murdoch took over the business, with a sensational title, all kinds of celebrity privacy and anecdotes of the anecdote magically popular, not long after the reader increased to 400 million people , Became the world’s street tabloid idol and imitate the object.
In 1973, Murdoch crossed the Atlantic. In this year he put the United States “St Anthony News” and “Star” get it. February 1976, he has acquired the “New York Post” and has “New York”, “Voice of the Country”, “New West” and other weekly magazine company in New York.

Murdoch really famous world, or in 1981, he spotted the opportunity to buy a symbol of Great Britain’s dignity and dignity, has a 200-year-old “The Times.” Murdoch can not but admire the extraordinary talent, he is always very accurate to determine the great development of the newspaper, and decisively for themselves, and then a lot of money. In 1985, Murdoch bought the twentieth Century Fox film company. His fancy is not the film company, but the company’s affiliated Fox television. Murdoch spent a year, this little-known independent television station into a small structure of a reasonable television network, from the television station has become a treasure. Fox television network has the number of members from the initial development of the 12 television stations to 188, with the old American television magnates, ABC, CBS and NBC stand side by side. Soon, he bought the bankruptcy of the UK pay TV – Sky TV, and then with its magic to make it back to life, and now the British Sky Television has become one of the European television program launch center. In 1993, in order to enter the Chinese market, Murdoch purchased the Hong Kong satellite television network, the Hong Kong satellite television through its technical superiority in the Asian TV gold rush to take the initiative, for Murdoch’s television programs and film products won Nearly half of the world’s audience. After 40 years of struggle, Murdoch became the world’s largest media empire, one of the leaders, he molded himself into the incarnation of the modern media industry. Murdoch was among the first to realize that the secret to the success of the modern media industry was one of the best at controlling both content and distribution at the same time. Murdoch’s media kingdom covers about 1/3 of the world’s population. In the United States, Murdoch has the fourth largest television network (Fox television network), Hollywood has a film studio; in Latin America, Murdoch and three television stations, through satellite broadcast 150 sets of programs; in Europe, Murdoch There are Sky TV in India; EETV in India; in China, 35 million families can watch Murdoch’s satellite TV; in the UK, 40% of the newspapers are Murdoch’s News Corporation; the birthplace of the Murdoch Kingdom In Australia, Murdoch’s News Corp. owns two-thirds of local newspapers, as well as commercial television and cable television. In fact, in this information society, Murdoch manipulated by a variety of media is becoming contact with people outside the eyes and ears, almost has formed a monopoly of information. It is no exaggeration to say that every day we read the newspaper, watching TV, enjoy the novel and even the favorite team, there is the appearance of the Australians shadow. A recent survey by the British newspaper Observer Newspaper shows that media and business giants have replaced the traditional British celebrities as the most influential people in British daily life. The survey shows that today the most able to control the British 300 people, the top of the British Prime Minister Tony Blair, the media tycoon Rupert Murdoch and Microsoft Chairman Gates.

 

July 2, 1999, Murdoch in London announced that its News Corporation formally joined the cable revolution, the transformation of the international network of companies. He pointed out that the era of newspaper printing is coming to an end. Murdoch stressed that the future of the world is no longer a big bullying small, but fast to slow down. In April 1999, News Corporation began to strategically invest in the Internet, digital TV and wireless communications industry. In 2000, Murdoch and YAHOO in the attempt and cooperation, and Nokia to discuss cooperation in the development of wireless networks. And its subsidiary is already established a number of news, health care and e-commerce site. In fact, Murdoch has long been an insight into the future of the network. As early as 1998, he spent his own shares in Hong Kong Cable Television Limited from 48% to 100%. For the Internet, Murdoch has a famous saying: I do not understand the Internet and will never understand. But you do not have to understand the Internet, as long as know how to use it like! This is indeed a big truth.

In many people’s eyes, Murdoch can not be regarded as a newspaperman, can only be regarded as newspaper speculators. Murdoch is the guts, the combination of strategy and hard work. Murdoch said: buy newspapers and newspapers, I learned to run a newspaper. With the traditional sense of the difference between the newspaper, Murdoch is the success and development reasons, he will not rigidly adhere to the existing newspaper itself, but always staring at the next goal. As Murdoch summed up the experience of running a newspaper: to always pay attention to the clues of new technologies, new technology investment.
Although Murdoch is wealthy, but still like a pioneer in Australia, like the morning and afternoon. 5:30 every day to get up, drink carrot juice, swim for a while swimming, 7:00 to work on time, until 9 pm. His assistant may at any time received his phone: I was Murdoch. Whether the front page of the news, a variety of photos, or the layout of the ad, he all personally intervene. Murdoch only six assistant management of his 40,000 employees around the world, and these six individuals is nothing but an absolute obedience to the executive. Murdoch firmly believes that the only way to develop a career is to manage it yourself. For a long time, his financial management only to stay in the level of selling hot dog hawkers, accounts as simple as the product of knot rope era.

Murdoch like to continue to expand through the annexation of the kingdom’s borders, but not casually take the money to play. He is always optimistic about the shot before. In this regard, he has his own unique insights: hands do not mean that the fastest will be successful. This seems to be the current network industry, the law of some contradictions. But Murdoch is not a bubble like man, he like Australia’s most simple farmers, like real achievements. For mergers and business development, he once optimistic, it must be the shot when the shot, spending big bucks unequivocally. At this time, his theory came a 180 degree change – strong as fast. Murdoch is undoubtedly the man of the hour. In 1998, he controlled the twentieth Century Fox introduced the film “Titanic” swept the world, gave him $ 2 billion; the World Cup after he spent 1.02 billion dollars in an attempt to buy Manchester United; President Clinton sudden sex scandal , He has to invest 3 million US dollars to buy Lewinsky romantic history … … media, Murdoch constantly create the world’s hot and selling point, and he himself has become the object of media chase. Madman Murdoch to a unique expansion and tax avoidance means to create a super-profit.
April 17, the Australian stock market crash, the reason, the Australian media tycoon Murdoch suffering from cancer. As analysts say: cancer and Murdoch’s name appeared together enough to make the stock market crash. It turns out that one person sick, Australia shock.
Murdoch Who is it? In fact, even if you do not know Murdoch, then you must know those who belong to his famous media and team. For example, 20th Century Fox Film Company, the United States Fox television network, Los Angeles Dodgers and so on. 69-year-old Murdoch is the world’s top 100 list of regulars, the total assets of $ 7.2 billion. He established the media kingdom has covered the world more than 3/4 of the population.
Today, Murdoch controls many of the world’s leading media, but his media kingdom is from a mountain tabloid in Australia, “Adelaide Daily” developed.[:]

未经允许不得转载:蓝血人网 » 新闻集团默多克的创业历程

评论 抢沙发

  • 昵称 (必填)
  • 邮箱 (必填)
  • 网址

微信关注公众号:【经济评论】了解更多